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Koll North Creek Draft Environmental Impact Statement 1981 '. '1 tc.lQr\.- t<.!)i.'I<'y 'I @@fF?JW' '. I . I I I , '. ! '. .. CITY OF BOTH E LL koll business center - bothell @[f@vli @ 0 ~ '. L ;. 1. I ill ;1 i '. 10- J ;1 , .. I Wilsey & Ham, Inc., Consultants I I I I I I I I I I I 'I I I I I I I I DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR KOLL CENTER CITY of BOTHELL DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Prepared for the review and comments of citizens, citizen groups, and governmental agencies in compliance with: THE WASHINGTON ST ATE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1971 CHAPTER 43.21c REVISED CODE OF WASHINGTON REVISED SEPA GUIDELINES, EFFECTIVE JANUARY 21,1978 CITY OF BOTHELL SEPA GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOP~ENT PROPOSALS IN THE NORTH CREEK VALLEY PLANNING AREA DATE OF ISSUE OF DRAFT: February 20, 1981 DATE COMMENTS DUE: March 27, 1981 COST OF COPIES: $5.00 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Introduction ACTION SPONSOR The Koll Company 2021 152nd N.E. Redmond, Washington 98052 (206) 643-1776 PROPOSED ACTION The sponsor is requesting all necessary approvals to develop a commercial/retail, office and light industrial complex on a 140-acre parcel of land in general conformance with the North Creek Valley Comprehensive Plan. PROJECT LOCATION The project site is locafed within the Bothell city limits, bounded on the west by Interstate 405, on the south by N.E. 195th Street, on the east by 120th Avenue N.E. and by the King County-Snohomish County line on the north. LEAD AGENCY City of Bothell Department of Community Development RESPONSIBLE OFFICIAL/CONTACT PERSON Daniel W. Taylor, Director Department of Community Development 18305 101st N.E. Bothell, Washington 98011 (206) 486-8152 PRINCIPAL CONTRIBUTORS This environmental impact statement has been prepared under the direction of the City of Bothell Department of Community Development. Additional research and analysis was provided by the following firms: Environmental Analysis and Document Preparation: Wilsey &. Ham, Inc. 1980 112th A venue N.E. Bellevue, Washington 98004 (206) 454-3250 Industrial Market Analysis: Realesearch Cumberland Realty Group, Ltd. Retail Impacts: Bill Mundy &. Associates, Inc. 900 Seattle Tower Building 3rd &. University Seattle, Washington 98101 (206) 623-2935 i ii I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I a I Archaeological/Historical Resources: Geo-Recon P. O. Box 55189 Seattle, Washington 98155 (206) 362-9484 REQUIRED PERMITS/APPROVALS Substantial Development Permit (Shoreline Management Act of 1971, RCW 90.58.140) Hydraulics Permit Construction/Extension of Sewer System Permit National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Flood Control Zone Permit Platting Reclassification of Zoning and PUD Approval COST OF COPIES $5.00 DA TE OF ISSUE OF DRAFT EIS February 20, 1981 RETURN COMMENTS TO RESPONSIBLE OFFICIAL BY March 27, 1981 I I I I I I , I I I I I I I I I .' I I I Table of Contents INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RECIPIENTS OF THE DRAFT EIS. . . . . . . SUMMARY OF CONTENTS OF THE DRAFT EIS The Proposed Project. . . . . . . . . . . Environmental Impacts and Mitigating Measures Elements of the Economic Environment. Alternatives to the Proposed Plan Unavoidable Adverse Impacts . . DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSAL Name of Proposal and Sponsor. Project Location. . . . . . . . Other Agency File Numbers. . . Construction Schedule . . . . . Physical and Engineering Aspects Relationship to Existing Plans and Regulations. EXISTING CONDITIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION Elements of the Physical Environment: Topography Geology . . Soils . . . Vegetation. Wildlife . . Water. . . Air Quality. Noise. . . Natural Resources Light and Glare. . Risk of Explosion or Hazardous Emissions Land Use . . . . . . . . . . . Elements of the Human Environment: Population and Housing . . . Social. . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and Circulation Public Services. Energy . . . Utilities. . . Human Health . Aesthetics. . . Recreation. . . . . . . . . . . . Archaeological/Historical Resources. Elements of the Economic Environment. SHORT-TERM ENVIRONMENTAL USES VS. LONG-TERM PRODUCTIVITY. . . . . IRREVERSIBLE OR IRRETRIEVABLE COMMITMENTS OF RESOURCES ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSAL UNAVOIDABLE ADVERSE IMPACTS REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . Page i I 3 3 9 9 10 13 13 13 13 16 17 21 21 21 25 27 30 34 40 47 48 49 50 59 63 63 80 84 86 89 89 95 95 99 107 108 109 125 127 LIST OF ELEMENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT . . APPENDIX A: NOISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX B: SITE COVERAGE CALCULATIONS (PROPOSAL &. AL TERNA TIVES) . APPENDIX C: FISCAL IMPACTS. . . . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES: Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 6A: Figure 7: Figure 7 A: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Page 129 131 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I !I I I I 135 142 Site Location. Site Plan. . Topography . Soils . . . . Vegetation.. . . Creek Channel Cross-Sections Air Quality Receptor Sites. Noise Sites. . . . . Noise Contours (Ldn) Planning Area . . . Census Tracts . . . Existing Circulation. . .. .. Retail Employment Trip Distribution Office Park Employment Trip Distribution Light Industry Employment Trip Distribution 1980 PM. Peak Hour Traffic. . . . . . . . . 1985 PM Peak Hour Traffic (without Project) . 1982 PM Peak Hour Traffic. . . 1985 PM Peak Hour Traffic. . . Sketches of Existing Appearance Visual Impacts . . . . . . . . 14 15 22 23 26 32 38 41 45 52 60 64 68 69 70 74 75 77 79 91 93 LIST OF TABLES Table I: Table II: Table III: Table IV: Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table V: VI: VII: VIII: IX: X: XI: XII: XIII: XIV: XV: XVI: XVII: XVIII: XIX: XX: Koll Business Center Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . Air Quality Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emissions Due to Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon Monoxide Emission Factors for Various Vehicle 16 35 37 39 40 42 44 44 61 62 62 62 67 71 73 86 102 103 104 110 Speeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Predicted Eight-Hour Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide Existing Noise Levels (dBA) . . . Ldn Noise Levels . . . . . . . . Predicted Ldn Noise Levels (dBA) . Population Characteristics. Population Projections. . . . . . Housing Characteristics . . . . . Income Characteristics . . . . . Proportion of All Trips by Types of Employment. Average Trip Lengths. . . . . . . . . . . Trip Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heating and Cooling Degree Days for Seattle. Projected Property Taxes . . . . . . . . . Projected Utility Taxes . . . . . . . . . . Short-Term Employment and Income Impacts. Summary of Site Coverage Alternatives . . . . . . I I I I I I I I 'I I I I I I I I I I. I Recipients of the Draft EIS Federal Agencies U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region X State Agencies Department of Commerce and Economic Development Governor .of the State of Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation Office of Community Development Department of Ecology Department of Fisheries Department of Game Department of Natural Resources Department of Social and Health Services Transportation Commission Regional Agencies Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (METRO, 2 copies) Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency Puget Sound Council of Governments - King Subregional Council Puget Sound Council of Governments - (Main Office) Puget Sound Council of Governments - Snohomish Subre~ional Council Snohomish County A!1;encies/Offices Snohomish County Department of Public Works Snohomish County Economic Development Council 9 Snohomish County Parks Department Snohomish County Planning Department Snohomish County Public Utility District No.1 King County Agencies/Offices King County Department of Budget and Program Plannin~ (4 copies) Cities Kirkland Redmond Lake Forest Park Utilities/Services Alderwood Sewer District General Telephone Puget Sound Power &. Light Sno-King Garbage Company Washington Natural Gas Water District No. 104 1 z I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Libraries Bothell Public Library (5 copies) North Creek Branch of Sno-lsle Regional University of Washington Library Architecture &. Urban Planning Branch Newspapers Daily Journal of Commerce North Shore Citizen Seattle Post-Intelligencer Seattle Times Western Sun Others Bothell Chamber of Commerce South County Homeowners' Group Washington Environmental Council I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Summary of Contents of Draft EIS The Koll Company is requesting approval to develop a retail/commercial/office/light industrial complex on a 140.1-acre site in Bothell. The site, located at the northeast intersection of 1-405 and NE 195th Street, would require rezoning from A (Agricultural) to MU (Mixed Use), as recommended in the North Creek Valley Plan. No area other than North Creek Valley has been recommended for mixed use within Bothell. Based on present market projection, the sponsor estimates that the development would include up to approximately 200,000 square feet of commercial/retail space, 350,000 square feet of office' space, and 990,000 square feet of light industrial space. The development approval process and market condition could affect the ultimate mix of uses. However, it is not anticipated, at the present time, that the retail would exceed 200,000 square feet. The proposal would include approximately 5,225 parking spaces and 28 acres of stream buffer and natural open space designed to enhance the overall character of the development. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MmGATING MEASURES ELEMENTS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT TOPOGRAPHY The entire site would be graded to allow level areas for buildings and parking. This would result in lowering perimeter areas from four to twenty feet. GEOLOGY AND SOILS The existing peat would require surcharging to compress it prior to construction. On- site cut materials would be utilized thereby eliminating the need for fill material. The areas of deepest peat deposits would be preserved in open space. The proponent would develop an erosion control plan during construction and proposed landscaping would minimize erosion upon completion. AIR QUALITY Heating and cooling of buildings, traffic added to local roads, and construction activity would be the expected sources of air pollutants emitted from the project. Increases in traffic would cause the majority of emissions, especially carbon monoxide. With the aid of more stringent federal regulations, pollutant levels from vehicles would remain well within accepted EPA standards. Levels would be further reduced if traffic impacts are mitigated. 3 Construction impacts could be minimized by operational techniques such as watering. WATER The proposed modifications. to the creek channel are intended to result in improved water quality; however, impacts to surface water would occur due to re-alignment of North Creek, intensive site grading, and an increase in impervious surfaces. The banks of the creek would be planted with trees to provide stability and shade. Improvements in water quality are entirely dependent on proper design and construction of the channel. Storm water runoff from impervious surfaces would be collected by underground catch basins and storm sewers routed to a surface retention pond. From here, the water would flow by an existing surface ditch into the Sammamish River. VEGETATION The majority of existing on-site vegetation would be eliminated by the proposed site grading. Natural vegetation would be re-established along the length of the relocated creek channel, and within the greenbelt and greenbelt/storm retention areas. Native trees are proposed along the creek banks to provide shade. The covenants, conditions and restrictions (CC &. R's) would specify acceptable landscaping plans. Input from the Departments of Fisheries and Game would be solicited during the preparation of final designs. Individual parcels would be seeded upon completion of grading if development is not to occur immediately as required by Bothell codes. WILDLIFE Most of the existing habitat (abandoned pastures and the stream channell would be eliminated during construction. However, upon completion of the project, stream habitat would be improved, riparian habitat and possible additional marsh/wetland habitats would be created. These are far more productive than the pasture presently covering the site. The success of the proposed habitat improvements is entirely dependent on proper design and careful construction. NOISE Noise impacts from the proposed development would originate from the added traffic volumes and from short-term construction activities. Noise in the area would increase slightly even without the project. Additional traffic would create substantial noise increases along N.E. 195th Street near 1-405 and along 1-405 south of the interchange. Activities within the site would be mainly confined to daytime hours. 4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LIGHT AND GLARE The proposal would add on-site sources of light from overhead lighting of roadways and parking areas and from buildings. Lighting would be directional and would be restricted by CC &. R's, and conform with all applicable regulations and energy-saving guidelines. LAND USE Approval of the rezone would permit the former agricultural land, now vacant, to be developed as a mixed-use center. Development of the site would have secondary impacts of pressuring additional development of surrounding areas into residential areas. The intensity of the proposed project would have an indirect effect of encouraging development of other valley floor property. The proposal would be controlled by mandatory adherence to applicable land use codes and regulations including specifically the North Creek Valley Plan and its implementing mitigating measures. Adding greenbelt areas, and meanders to North Creek channel and complying with proposed covenants, conditions and restrictions would help to minimize impacts on surrounding land uses. NATURAL RESOURCES The existing vacant site would be substantially developed into a business center facility upon completion. Fossil fuels would be consumed during the construction and operational stages of the project and by vehicles traveling to and from the site. Alternative uses of the site would be substantially reduced after development is complete. Augmentation of the proposed North Creek Trail network would reduce the impact of losing the natural character of the site. Site and building conservation techniques would be utilized to reduce energy use. RISK OF EXPLOSION OR HAZARDOUS EMISSIONS A temporary risk of equipment-related accidents would occur during construction. All applicable safety measures would be observed during construction. On-site spillage would be handled by expert consultation. ELEMENTS OF THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT POPULA TION AND HOUSING The project could have a secondary impact of accelerating the demand for developing housing units in the surrounding areas. Demand for housing units resulting from this proposal could be met by developing present residentially-zoned properties within the area including the adjacent hillside areas, in conformance with the North Creek Valley Comprehensive Plan. 5 SOCIAL In addition to changing the lifestyles of the two families currently living on the site, surrounding residents may also perceive their neighborhoods becoming less rural. TRANSPORTATION AND CIRCULATION Initial development of the proposed business center would cause the northbound I~ 405/NE 195th Street interchange to operate at Level of Service "D", 85 to 92% of full capacity. When the project is complete in 1985 the intersection would be operating at Level of Service "F" with a demand 25% over capacity. The southbound off-ramp would also move to Level of Service "F" to accommodate 1985 traffic volumes generated by the project. The remaining intersections have sufficient capacity to handle the estimated additional traffic. If improvements were not made, traffic would divert to other local streets in the area. In order to mitigate the adverse impact to traffic at 1-405/NE 195th Street, widening and signal improvements would be needed to aid traffic flows. Improvements would bring traffic operation at both intersections to Level of Service "B" and allow complete development of the site by 1985. A recommended master traffic plan for the entire North Creek Planning Area should originate with the City of Bothell. PUBLIC SERVICES Fire Completion of the project would create substantial additional demands for fire protection from the City of Bothell Fire Department. All buildings would be designed with required fire detection and supression devices. Recommendations from the fire department would be incorporated into the design of the site and structures. Police The proposed development would create additional demands on law enforcement personnel that would be offset by additional tax revenues generated by the project. Certain crime-related activities associated with developments of this size and type can be expected to occur. Police recommendations, approved locking devices and building and parking security lighting would assist police patrols. Schools The proposal is not expected to cause a substantial shift in population nor significantly impact area schools. It would result in a minor addition to the established growth trends in the area.' 6 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Parks No direct impact on existing park or recreation facilities is anticipated. The conceptual site plan shows the relocation of the creek channel into a meandering pattern, flanked by greenbelt areas in native vegetation. Pedestrian trails would augment the proposed trail network for the North Creek Valley area facilitating public utilization. Maintenance A portion of the property tax revenues resulting from the development of the site would be allocated for repair, maintenance and improvement of roadways. Energy Construction and operation of the development would result in the consumption of various forms of natural resources. Upon completion as proposed, the project would use an estimated 267 billion BTU annually for heating, lighting and equipment operation. For comparison, a 2,000-square-foot home in this area uses approximately 150 million BTU annually or about half the energy of commercial buildings per square foot. Building and sitework energy costs would require an estimated 1.33 trillion BTU for construction and site development. The proposal will utilize the most current design concepts and materials to assure energy efficiency. UTILITIES Electr ici ty Electricity would be required to satisfy the majority of power requirements and must be provided by Puget Power. Energy-efficient design would minimize the use of electricity. Major site improvements would be required to adequately service the site, including transformers, transformer pads and underground feeders. Natural Gas It is not anticipated that full development would impact the ability of Washington Natural Gas to satisfy current and projected demands in the area. Water Domestic water consumption would increase upon full development of the site. Final plans would require fire marshall approval prior to construction. Water lines would be brought into the site at the developer's expense and the developer would assist the City in constructing a reservoir facility subject to the city's approval. Upon completion of these improvements, adequate water would be available. 7 Sewers The size and type of the development proposed would not significantly impact the capacity of the METRO trunk line south of the site. A sanitary sewer line would be extended from the METRO trunk line, approximately 2,760 feet, to the site. This line would be oversized in accordance with City requirements to serve potential additional development in the area. Storm Water Impervious surfaces would cover approximately 60 percent of the improved site. Sediment levels would substantially increase during site-grading periods. Those areas not scheduled for immediate construction would be seeded after grading is complete to reduce runoff and erosion. Storm water generated by impermeable surfaces would be handled by catch basins, storm sewers and a retention pond. AESTHETICS The development would be visible from the surrounding hillsides, and from the adjacent streets and highways. Meandering the creek channel with adjacent open space would create a more natural appearing stream corridor. Earth berms, walls, fences, and landscaping would buffer the presence of 1-405 and would improve the overall appearance of the proposal. Architectural design standards would be imposed on the development through private conditions, covenants and restrictions. RECREATION The proposal would' have a positive impact by providing recreational opportunities not currently present on the site. The greenbelt open space and creek would comprise a 28- acre area of space open to public use and accessible from public rights-of-way. A pedestrian trail network would augment the proposed North Creek Trail System. Jointly used parking areas are also planned. ARCHAEOLOGICAL/HISTORICAL Surface and subsurface archaeological investigations have been conducted on the site. No resources were discovered. The existing structures (barns and houses) were investigated and, although the barn is perceived by some as a community landmark, no historical significance was identified. The sponsor intends to preserve the present Davie's residence (former golf clubhouse) as a community center. To be certain that development of the site would not result in the loss of any undiscovered archaeological resources, the archaeological subconsultant recommended that they be retained to be present during early site grading. 8 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 'I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ELEMENTS OF THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT PROPOSED USES Using land sales and land absorption levels of established industrial parks as indicators of market demand, the entire development as light industrial use would be absorbed at approximately 30 acres per year. This would account for 3596 of the projected demand, for competitive development on the Eastside. The 105 acres of net developable land would be absorbed in about 3.5 years. Commercial/retail use of the site would be dependent on market demand at the time of sale or lease. Growing residential development throughout the area shows a good market potential for commercial/retail services and no significant adverse impact to existing downtown Bothell retail businesses. Office space demand, based on employ- ment projections, indicates that the proposed project would account for 3.696 of King County's total ten-year demand. T AX REVENUES The assessed value of the proposed development would total $87 million and would generate $715,141 in annual tax revenues to the City of Bothell and over $587,433 in initial permit fees and taxes. EMPLOYMENT Employment would be created by the proposed development in the short term by construction and in the long term by 3,550 permanent on-site employment opportuni- ties: 500 estimated for commercial/retail use, 1,400 for office use, and 1,650 for light industr ial use. DEVELOPER'S FAIR SHARE Development of the proposed center would require capital improvements in public facilities. The developer will be required to finance improvement to utility systems and streets needed to serve the project. NET FISCAL IMPACT An analysis of the net fiscal impact indicates that the proposed development would have a positive net impact of $386,302 annually when considering total costs of services and total revenues of the project for the City of Bothell. AL TERNA TIVES TO THE PROPOSED PLAN Denial of the proposed rezone, the "no action" alternative, would temporarily retain the site as is and eliminate its attendant beneficial and adverse impacts. The proposal is substantially consistent with Bothell's guidelines for development in North Creek Valley 9 and if denied, would probably only delay development. Potential improvements to the North Creek channel would be eliminated. Other sites in the area, also in the jurisdictional control of Bothell, are suitable for this type of development. Since existing conditions are substantially similar to those of the Koll site, environmental impacts of development would also be similar. As a comparison to the proposal, a number of variations in the mix or size of the proposed uses was analyzed by changing the amount of site coverage and/or the type of proposed uses. The following is a summary of all alternatives considered. In all of the alternatives considered proportional changes resulting from a smaller development or one of uniform use would occur in the following: potential for wildlife habitat dependent upon carefully landscaped open space, including cover vegetation and surface water; air quality as affected by traffic volume; future intensification of land uses in the vicinity as indirectly affected by the intensity of the proposal; pressure for additional nearby housing caused in part by on-site employment; traffic volumes in approximate proportion to the size and type of use considered; and economic impacts regarding tax revenue and site employment. Proposal Alt. 1 .@:.l ~ Alt. 4 Alt. 5 - Percent Impervious Surface Coverage 5096 * 2796 4096 6096 2796 5096 Total Acres of 105 140 105 105 140 105 Salable Area Maximum Floor Area (Square footage): Commercial Office Industr ial * 200,000 108,910 159,272 350,000 186,298 278,610 990,000 484,561 717.255 1,540,000 779,769 1,155,137 <35.4 (17.9 (26.5 Acres) Acres) Acres) * The proposed project would slightly exceed 5096 since calculated at 6096 impervious surface coverage. 564,773 1,044,830 1,884,406 1,884,406 (43.3 Acres) half of Total 564,773 (13 Acres) 1,044,830 (24 Acres) the industrial portion is UNAVOIDABLE ADVERSE IMPACTS Unavoidable adverse impacts which cannot be mitigated or avoided as a result of the proposed development are listed below. Earth-Topo!l:raphy, Geology and Soils Leveling and redistribution of site soils from grading, excavations and construction of access roads and parking areas. 10 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Air Deterioration in air quality although remaining within federal standards. Water Temporary impacts resulting from re-alignment of the creek channel, site grading until stream channel is stabilized and vegetation established. Long-term impacts due to increased impervious surfaces, resulting in increased runoff and reduced infiltration of storm water. Vegetation Removal of existing site vegetation by site grading. Wildlife Wildlife habitat essentially eliminated as construction is implemented, but replaced by a more natural riparian corridor habitat. Noise Increased noise levels increase on and adjacent to the site and along the 1-405 corridor. Light and Glare Additional on-site sources of light and glare resulting from building, parking and roadwa y lighting. Land Use Loss of existing open, undeveloped agricultural land. Secondary impact of encouraging development of adjacent hillside and valley floor areas. Alternative site uses would be lost. Natural Resources Consumption of fossil fuels during the construction and operational phases of the project and by vehicles traveling to and from the site. Risk of Explosion or Hazardous Emissions Temporary risk of equipment related accidents would occuring during construction. Population and Housing Secondary impact of accelerating demands for adjacent housing resulting from in- creased on-site employment opportunities. Transportation and Circulation Although mitigated by widening of 195th and improvement to several intersections, there would be a significant increase in traffic along NE 195th Street and the intersection with 1-405. 11 Public Services - Fire, Police Project development substantially increasing demands on fire protection and law enforcement personnel requirements. Enerl(Y. Construction sitework and operation of the proposal consuming energy for heating, lighting, equipment operation, construction and employee commuting. Aesthetics The existing pastoral setting replaced by a 140-acre mixed-use development. 12 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i. I I I I I I I I I I I 'I I I I I I il Description of the Proposal NAME OF PROPOSAL AND SPONSOR The proposal is to construct a business center in the City of Bothell, to be known as the KolI Business Center - Bothell. The goals of the project are to: 1. Construct an economically competitive mixed use, business park. 2. Implement the North Creek Comprehensive Plan by developing land within the planning area. 3. Provide the services offered by an office/industrial/commercial-retail de- velopment. The sponsor and developer is the KolI Company. Uses on the site would be limited to office, light industrial, and commercial/retail activity. PROJECT LOCATION The development would occur on a 140-acre site located in the northeast quadrant of the intersection of NE 195th Street and Interstate 405, a major north-south freeway serving the east side of Lake Washington. The site is bounded on the east by 120th Avenue NE and on the north by the King County-Snohomish County line. Figure 1 shows the project location in its regional context and Figure 2 shows the conceptual site plan. OTHER AGENCY FILE NUMBERS None known. CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE Subject to approval by the City, the proponent would begin construction of internal streets, the stream relocation, open space, common landscaped areas, and basic utilities in mid-1981. The project sponsor intends to begin marketing the site in late 1981. Development af ter sale is dependent in part on whether developers, investors and users percei ve the demand for undeveloped land exceeding its supply. When this occurs, the rate of sale will be faster than the rate of actual development due to the tendency to purchase for development, expansion or investment. The sponsor estimates that the sell-out time for lots could range from 2.5 to 3 years, or at a rate of 35-40 acres per year. Construction on individual parcels could begin anytime after initial sale and would continue for an unknown period of time after the sale of all lots has occurred. 13 PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING ASPECTS Development of the site as projected would result in up to approximately 200,000 square feet of commercial/retail space, 350,000 square feet of office space, 990,000 square feet of light industrial buildings and nearly 2 million square feet of parking area, 28 acres of natural greenbelt areas and a meandering creek (See Table I for details). This could change depending on market demand and the development approval process. But no increase in retail is foreseen at the present time. Since the development is subject to P.U.D. (Planned Unit Development) requirements, building covenants and restrictions would be stringent. Development concepts and actual building designs for each individual lot would be reviewed and accepted or rejected by an architectural control committee in addition to the City of Bothell Planning Commission. TABLE I KOLL BUSINESS CENTER PROPOSAL BuildiOl~s Ultimate (1986) Office Uses 350,000 square feet Commercial/Retail Uses 200,000 square feet Light Industrial Uses 990,000 square feet - Total floor area proposed 1,540,000 square feet ParkinlZ Office Parking 1,750 spaces Commercial/Retail Parking 1,000 spaces Light Industrial Parking 2,475 spaces 5,225 spaces - Total Parking Coverage: 1,959,375 square feet Imoervious Surface Prooosed: Office 50% Commercial/Retail 5096 *Light Industrial ~ at 50% ~ at 60% * The sponsor has estimated that roughly half of the proposed light industrial uses would qualify for the 10% bonus in impervious surface allowable under the Bothell Municipal Code for clean, light industrial uses. Therefore, these calculations are based on the assumption that half of the light industrial area would be developed at 50% and half at 60% impervious surface. The process used to determine site coverage for various land uses is discussed in detail in Appendix B. 16 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I RELATIONSHIP TO EXISTING PLANS AND REGULATIONS . Zoning The proposal site is zoned for agricultural use. Ordinance No. 971 amending the Bothell Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance was adopted by the City Council on August 4, 1980. It established, among other provisions, a new land use classification designated "Mixed Use Zone (MU)" to serve the following purposes: . To establish areas permitting a wide variety of land uses which co-exist compatibly with each other and the environment. . To promote land uses which have a positive contribution toward meeting housing needs, providing local employment opportunities and which contribute to the City's tax base without contributing to visual, air, light, water or noise pollution. . To promote uses of land in a manner which tends to meet community open space and recreational needs by fostering agricultural, recreation and other open space uses. . To encourage development which is architecturally and aesthetically compati- ble with the surrounding environment and land uses. The uses proposed in this development conform to those permitted in Chapter 17.23.020 of the amended zoning ordinance. Chapter 17.25.010 establishes the North Creek Special District as an overlay zoning classification for the purpose of implementing the goals, objectives, policies and standards of the Bothell/North Creek Valley Comprehensive Plan. Regardless of which underlying zoning classification may in the future be assigned to the property, this chapter must be satisfied to guarantee that all development occurring within the North Creek Special District will comply with minimum development standards. The proposal must also go through the planned unit development process as established in 17.2 of the Bothell Municipal Code. The actual rezone of the property would be obtained after final development plan ap~roval. When the North Creek Valley Planning Area is rezoned into classifications imple- menting the Comprehensive Plan discussed below, the entire valley floor, including the site, will probably be zoned Mixed Use. . Comprehensive Plan In response to increasing development pressures in the North Creek Valley, the City of Bothell supplemented its comprehensive plan by developing and adopting the North 17 Creek Valley Comprehensive Plan. The North Creek Valley Comprehensive Plan addresses the community's concern for maintaining the residential and semi-rural atmosphere while improving the local tax base. The plan presents a variety of goals and implementing policies for development of the valley and adjacent hillsides. An environmental impact statement and supporting studies were prepared prior to adoption of the plan. Among the policies developed in the plan to address community concerns is the concept of limiting allowable impervious surfaces for new developments in the valley. A summary of the most applicable goals and policies of this document (including the impervious surface limitation) are discussed below. Each policy is followed by a brief analysis of how it relates to the project as proposed. Additional policies and objectives are discussed in the LAND USE section. Goal: North Creek Valley "Recognize the North Creek Valley as a unique resource suitable for a multiplicity of uses by providing for a variety of uses which will be compatible with each other and with the setting." Policy: Development of the valley floor shall be subject to the Planned Unit Development process. The conceptual site plan shows proposed building sites, recreation/open spaces and major natural features such as North Creek. Drainage ways and wetlands were developed in consideration of the PUD approval process. Policy: Open space should be encouraged to the maximum extent practi- cable in all developments on the valley floor. The proposal includes the provision for 28 acres (2096) of open space comprised of greenbelt/flood plain areas, a storm retention pond area and a stream buffer area. This open space is centrally located on the site, allowing public enjoyment of a meandered North Creek. Policy: Impervious surface coverage allotment shall be utilized as a foundation of the plan. A basic planning allotment of 2796 impervious surface coverage is allowed. The project proponent has elected to supply sufficient environmental information to assess addition- al impacts resulting from 50% maximum impervious surface coverage and up to 60% in the case of clean, light industrial uses. Open space and North Creek considerations are two major general categories of impact mitigation incorporated into the proposal which may warrant an increase in the basic allotment. 18 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Policy: Surface water runoff flowin.g i~to Nort~ Creek should u:ilize a sewerage system if necessary to mamtam established water quality and quantity levels. The proposed project would utilize on-site catch basins, an oil separator and storm sewers to dispose of on-site runoff into an existing channel to Sammamish'River. A detention pond with a variable rate discharge outlet would be provided to eliminate potential increases in the peak rate of runoff from the site. Policy: Potential flood plains along North Creek should be protected to eliminate the necessity for further creek channelization for flood control purposes. The proposal provides for a 6..5-acre greenbelt flood plain area to capture any North Creek spill-over. During normal water levels, this area would be utilized as a natural vegetation open space. Policy: North Creek should be upgraded to a major fisheries area. The project sponsors propose meandering the North Creek channel as shown on the conceptual site plan (See Figure 2). The sponsor has met with the Department of Fisheries to discuss the concept of relocating the stream channel to improve salmon habitat (see WILDLIFE section of this report). Shading and natural habitat cover is proposed to control water temperatures to reduce algae growth and solar heating, thereby improving the quality of North Creek as a fisheries area. A gravel bottom is also proposed to provide an appropriate spawning environment. Policy: Utilize the unique setting of the North Creek Valley Planning Area to help meet the recreational needs of the Northshore area. The proposed development provides pedestrian paths along the creek, intended to augment the proposed North Creek Trail System. Several bridge crossings would allow maximum usage of the open space provided. The joint use of parking areas would be explored to encourage off-hour use of the parking by recreational users. Policy: 1-405 and SR 522 should be recognized and utilized as major transportation spines for the area and should be visually screened from the surrounding area. Actual building location or design has not been determined at this time. Major design considerations would include orientation and screening of service functions from 1-405. The development would not include business dependent upon attracting freeway motorists for a substantial portion of their business. 19 . Shoreline Master Program for the City of Bothell. Washington The Bothell shoreline development concepts were designed to preserve, in the general public interest, future options for development along North Creek and the Sammamish River, with emphasis on providing view corridors. The overriding purpose of these regulations is to guarantee sufficient opportunity for public access to and enjoyment of the shorelines and water resources within the City of Bothell. The goals and policies of the Shoreline Master Program were incorporated into the Bothell Comprehensive Plan. The goals and policies relating to North Creek are discussed above under the Comprehensive Plan section. The Shoreline Master Program designates the North Creek s~oreline as urban. The proposed development would provide for public access to the creek which is not presently available. 20 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Existing Conditions. Environmental Impacts and Mitigation . Elements of the Physical Environment TOPOGRAPHY Existing Conditions Topography was established by a field survey and is shown in Figure 3. Most of the site is a nearly level valley floor, but the western edge slopes up to 1-405, gradually rising about 32 feet. The North Creek channel cuts through the site from north to south. A few areas in the eastern half of the site are lower than the creek channel. Steep valley walls rise 200 to 300 feet to upland plateaus east and west of the site. Environmental Impact The site will be graded for development of buildings and parking areas. This will result in lowering the western edges of the site from ten to twenty feet. The northeastern corner of the site will be lowered up to ten feet. Along the eastern boundary of the site, 120th Avenue NE will be lowered up to six feet at one point. GEOLOGY Existing Conditions The valley was created by glacial processes several thousand years ago. North Creek has subsequently become entrenched in the valley. The lowering of Lake Washington in 1916 and the more recent channelization of North Creek and the Sammamish River have ended seasonal flooding and deposition of fine grained sediments on the site (see following paragraphs). A Flood Insurance Study (Preliminary) was recently completed for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. It states that although much of the site is within the histor ic 100-year flood plain, the 100-year floodway is now confined to the stream channel through the site. Localized seasonal ponding" occurs on the site due to the flat topography and fine textured soils. Environmental Impact There will be no significant impact to the geology of the area. SOILS Existing Conditions Soils of the site have been investigated on previous occasions for proposed development. Recent on-site investigations were conducted by a geotechnical consultant and included 21 numerous borings of the site and review of previous studies. Soil studies conducted by the Soil Conservation Service are also presented here (Figure 4). The findings of the on-site investigations generally coincide with the descriptions of soils by S.C.S. Along the western edge of the site, there are 7 to 10 feet of loose sands immediately beneath existing grades. These sands become more dense below the loose surficial layer. In the northwest corner of the site, very dense sands were encountered below 20 feet. This condition generally corresponds with the hillside in the western portion of the site. Throughout the rest of the site, there is 10 to 90 (near the center of the site) feet of peat immediately beneath the existing grades. Below the peat is compressible silt of medium density, grading to dense and very dense sand and gravels to the depths explored. In some of the borings and probes, beds of loose sands from 5 to 20 inches thick were encountered in the peat. Also some layers of loose sands were encountered immediately beneath the existing grades overlying the peat. In most of the borings, the peat was fibrous in the upper 10 feet, then mixed with more silt. At depth the peat grades into soft organic silt immediately above the underlying sands. Near the north center of the site, twelve feet of loose sands were encountered immed- iately beneath the existing grades increasing in density with depth. The compressible nature of peat will require special design considerations for any development of the site (e.g. pilings, surcharging). Environmental Impact The peat found over most of the site will require surcharging to compress the peat prior to construction. It is the intent of the proponent to utilize soil materials on-site for the surcharging, thus no significant quantities of fill are expected to be imported or exported. However, significant quantities of earth will be repositioned within the site. The less compressible soils along the western and eastern borders of the site will be moved inward and used for surcharging in stages as development occurs.- The loose sands near the north central part of the site present the potential for seismic instability due to liquefaction. This would result in minor settling of the low building types proposed that could be accommodated in the building design. If buildings greater than two stories are built in this area, they would be built on piles driven through to the underlying till to eliminate the possibility of the structures tilting during a major earthquake. The areas of the deepest peat deposits will be preserved in open space. Some of the peat removed during construction will be used in landscaping. During construction, there will be a temporary increased potential for erosion. 24 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Mitigating Measures The proponent will develop an erosion control plan to minimize erosion during construction. The proposed landscaping will minimize erosion following construction. During surcharging and until development occurs,' all disturbed areas should be seeded to control erosion. VEGETA110N Existing Conditic'"ls Study of vegetation for this project consisted of reviewing previous studies, a brief site visit and analys!: of recent aerial photographs. The vegetation communities of the site are illustrated i:1 Figure 5. The site was used for agricultural crop production until approximately seven years ago. Since that time, it has been abandoned and allowed to develop natural vegetation. The majority of the site now supports common pasture grasses and weeds. Three areas of slightly varying "JiI and water regimes have developed distinct vegetation communities on the site. Tt""e include: 1) an area of rushes and buttercups, 2) an area of young cottonwood tree, o.nd rushes and 3) an area of young willow trees and a few cattails. Cattails also 0" '," in a roadside ditch along the east boundary of the site. A few riparian shrub, ',d trees have grown along North Creek, but not enough to provide significant s: ;or the creek or riparian habitat. Several nath' exotic ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers have been planted near the two house; ", the site. There are no known rare or endangered plant species on the site. Environmental ;,-,)oact Most of the existing vegetation of the site would be eliminated by the extensive site grading proposed. Natural vegetation would be re-established along the entire length of the relocated creek channel (I I acres), within the 6.5 acre greenbelt, and within the greenbelt/storm retention area (5 acres). Most of the existing vegetation that would be lost consists of common pasture grasses and weeds. Depending on final design, much of the proposed greenbelt may become marsh, particularly the storm water retention area. This would provide productive wildlife habitat and improve water quaFty. Native tree species are proposed to be planted along the creek banks to provide shade for the stream. Since detailed planting designs have not been completed, the species, size and spacing for these trees has not been specified. 25 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The proponent will completely landscape the main boulevard, 195th and 120th, adjacent to the site, and the perimeter of the site. The individual parcels will be landscaped by the tenants as they are developed. If there is a delay between grading and development the individual parcels will be seeded so that they are not left barren. Mitigating Measures The city and the proponent should continue to work closely with the Departments of Fisheries and Game to prepare final designs for the creek corridor, greenbelt and stormwater retention area. Species, size and spacing of planting stock should be specified to assure effective shading of the creek immediately without waiting for trees to mature. With proper water/soil conditions, the greenbelt could become a valuable wetland or shrubby thicket habitat for wildlife. Individual parcels should be seeded upon completion of grading if development is not to occur immediately. The covenants, conditions and restrictions (CC &. R's) will specify landscaping requirements. WILDLIFE Existing Conditions Information relating to wildlife of the site was obtained by reviewing previous studies, observations on the site, analysis of habitat types, and by contacting the Department of Fisheries. The site is primarily grassland habitat supporting animals such as savannah sparrows, pheasant, American kestrel, red-tailed hawk, and small rodents. Song sparrows and robins are common in the areas of young trees. Marsh wrens were observed in the area dominated by rushes and buttercups. The few brushy areas support additional species such as American goldfinch and yellowthroat. Several species of swallows nest in the barn area and feed over the entire site. The site provides feeding habitat for migratory ducks in winter. The creek corridor is not well-developed riparian habitat due to prior disturbance (limited primarily to grasses down to the water). However, it does support wildlife. A long-tailed weasel, great blue heron and swallows were among the wildlife observed along the creek. The creek has been channeled and is straight with a uniform gradient throughout (no pools and no meanders). It is primarily a corridor for several species of salmon (coho, 27 sockeye, chinook) and sea-run cutthroat trout that spawn in the creek upstream from the site. Upstream from the site, North Creek is a very productive salmon stream. Spawning has not been observed on the site and previous studies have classified the stream as a migration corridor only. However, contacts with the Department of Fisheries have indicated that spawning may occur due to the gravel bottom. The creek provides limited habitat for downstream migrating Coho fry due to the absence of pools and streamside vegetation. The absence of streamside shrubs or trees to provide shade results in higher water temperatures during the summer, reduced oxygen and high levels of algae growth. The overall productivity and diversity of the site has increased annually as native vegetation communities develop, since agricultural activities on the site ceased in 1973. The species present are common in the region and no rare or endangered species are known to inhabit the site. Environmental Impact Nearly all of the existing habitat would be eliminated during construction. Upon completion of construction, stream habitat may be improved; additional riparian habitat and marsh/wetland habitat may be created. The riparian and the marsh/wetland habitats are far more productive than the pasture that is presently covering most of the site. Thus, the loss of existing habitat will be offset once the new habitat is established. The proposal would relocate the stream within a new corridor 130 feet wide as shown on the site plan (Figure 2) and in the typical cross-sections on the following page. Construction of the stream relocation is scheduled for the summer of 1981. An additional 14 acres of natural open space would be provided along the stream including a storm water retention basin (the storm water retention basin would not be connected hydraulically to North Creek). The project would create additional riparian habitat and is intended to improve water quality and habitat for salmon and trout. To be successful in improving habitat conditions, the existing concept would require carefully prepared, detailed, construction specifications, conscientious construction practices and monitoring of design and construction by the public agencies with jurisdiction. The City of Bothell must review site plans to approve the rezone and PUD, and must review construction drawings during the building permit phase. The Washington State Department of Fisheries and/or Department of Game must review construction plans to issue a Hydraulics Permit (required for any in-stream construc- tion). However, the City of Bothell does not have staff expertise to review the stream 28 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I channel designs or the actual construction as it relates to salmon habitat. While the Department of Fisheries has such expertise, it cannot always afford to assign staff to monitor construction. Thus, while the stream relocation has the potential to improve riparian and stream habitat, it is not assured under the present system; however, the sponsor will assist in funding additi~nal staff time as needed to monitor construction of the stream channel improvments in accordance with the Department of Fisheries specifications. In reviewing the planning, design and construction of the stream relocation, several conditions must be met. The following conditions must be met if the project is to improve conditions for adult salmon migration and spawning. Adequate water depth (8-12 inches) is necessary to allow passage for the fish. A clean gravel stream bed is necessary for spawning to occur. This requires adequate gradient and flow, clean gravel and protection from erosion and siltation in the future. Therefore, the stream channel and banks must be stable and silt must not be allowed to enter the stream from the adjacent area. For the eggs (buried in gravel) to survive, they need clean gravel to provide good water circulation. Good water circulation brings oxygen to the eggs and carries away wastes which can encourage diseases. The fry (juvenile fish) of Coho salmon stay in the stream for up to a year before migrating to salt water. At this stage their requirements are similar to trout and improving the habitat for salmon will also benefit the trout. The juvenile salmon still require clean water with high oxygen levels and low temperatures. In natural stream corridors, dense and continuous vegetation provides shade to keep water temperatures down and oxygen levels up. The young salmon and trout also require alternating deep pools and shallow riffles. The fish tend to stay in the pools while the shallow sections produce the food (insects) they require. Insects falling from overhanging shrubs are also eaten by the fish. To create habitat by new construction requires: I. clean gravel for the stream bed, 2. adequate channel width to allow the stream to develop its own meanders by repositioning the gravel, 3. stable stream banks to prevent erosion, 4. the proper gradient to retain gravel riffle sections, 5. occasional diversions, such as large boulders, to create meanders and pools (one pool every five times the width of the stream channel), and 6. large, dense, continuous vegetation to provide shade and a food source. 29 If all of the above conditions are met, stream habitat will be improved for salmon, trout and other stream inhabitants. (Construction drawings will be reviewed by the Department of Fisheries prior to initiation of construction). Continuous public access to the stream would conflict with wildlife; therefore, the public trails should not be immediately adjacent to the stream. The creation of a wooded riparian corridor will benefit other wildlife by increasing the variety of habitat types and by providing additional food (insects, seeds) and shelter. Once established, this should increase the diversity of wildlife populations on the site. The formal landscaping along the boulevard and on individual parcels will not provide significant wildlife habitat. Mitigating Measures A portion of the greenbelt area and the storm water retention area could be designed to become wetland habitats. This would greatly increase their productivity for wildlife. Detailed planting designs for the greenbelt and stream corridor should be completed and reviewed by the city prior to initiation of construction. Plant species should be selected to provide food and shelter for wildlife in addition to shading the creek (a list of recommended species is available from the Department of Game). A construction monitoring program should be established to assure that the stream channel construction and plantings are completed according to design. The sponsor has agreed to establish such a program. WATER Existing Conditions Surface water bodies on the site consist of North Creek and several drainage ditches. Thorough water quality data for North Creek is available from METRO. Water quality was sampled monthly for all of 19?9 and through March of 1980. Although water quality in North Creek is generally high, the creek has high nutrient levels and fecal coliform content. This is due primarily to the agricultural (pasture) usage of the valley upstream from the site. Substantial algae growth and solar heating occurs since there is little shading of the creek by riparian vegetation. Groundwater is generally at or near the surface during winter months due to the soil types. In summer the water table is several feet below the surface. The site has been drained by several ditches, remnants of the previous agricultural use. The 100-year f100dway is confined to the existing channels. 30 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Environmental Impact The proposed modifications to the channel are proposed with the intention of returning the stream to a more natural condition and improving water quality. However, impacts to surface water will occur due to re-a1ignment of North Creek, extensive earthwork on the entire site during construction, and an increase in impervious surfaces resulting in increased runoff. The proposed channel re-a1ignment of North Creek is illustrated in the site plan, Figure 2. Cross-sections of the new channel are shown in Figure 6. The new channel will be constructed and stabilized first. Then, a cut will be made in the existing channel to allow the stream to divert to the new channel. After the stream is diverted, the old channel will be filled. The new channel will have a gravel bottom and will be wide enough to allow the stream to meander slightly and reposition the gravel. Bank stabilization will be necessary in constricted areas under bridges and on outside curves or other erosion surfaces. The banks will be planted with trees to provide shade and stability. If protected from other disturbances, the stream should stabilize within a year. At that time, if properly designed and constructed, the water quality of the stream should improve. The additional shade should reduce summer water temperatures and increase oxygen levels in the water. Algae growth should also be reduced by the shading. Improvements in water quality are entirely dependent on proper design and construction of the channel. Critical factors in design and construction include: 1l adequate shading by plantings (this requires sufficient size and spacing) and topography; and 2) stabilization of banks and channel bottom. All channel work must occur during the summer to minimize impacts to upstream migration of adult salmon in the fall and downstream migration of juvenile salmon in the spring. The exact dates allowed for construction will be specified by the Department of Fisheries. There will be unavoidable temporary turbidity created when the stream is diverted. Storm water runoff will increase significantly due to the increase in impervious surfaces (see UTILITIES). Storm water from roadways and individual parcels will be collected by underground storm sewers and routed to a surface retention pond. Settling basins would be included in each catch basin and an oil/water separator would be incorporated at the inlet to the retention pond. From the retention pond, storm water would flow by surface ditch to the Sammamish River. 31 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The retention pond would retain storm water so that peak runoff rates from the developed site would not exceed runoff rates of a ten-year storm. Although peak runoff flows would not increase, the duration of peak flows would be prolonged due to increased run-off from impervious surfaces. A study done for EPA "Water Pollution Aspects of Street Surface Contaminants" (EPA- R2-72-081l gives some idea of the kinds of pollutants to expect. Runoff from commercial areas is typically high in nutrients (phosphate, nitrate) and heavy metals (lead and zinc from automobile use). The high nutrient levels would be similar to existing conditions on the site. The proposed settling basins would remove most solid materials such as silt and heavy metals from the runoff, and the skimmers would remove petroleum pollutants and other f1oatables. The significant remaining pollutants would be nutrients. If allowed to support vegetation, the settling basin may remove some nutrients from the storm water runoff and provide valuable marsh habitat. A temporary erosion control plan will be developed by the proponent to control erosion during construction. It is the proponent's intent that storm sewer facilities located on private property and the retention pond will be maintained at private expense by the proponent or a tenants' association (required by CC & R's). Storm sewer facilities, including catch basins located within dedicated road rights-of-way, would be maintained by the city. Groundwater recharge and storage capacity of the site will be reduced by the increased impermeable surfaces and compression of the peat soils. Compression of the soils would be limited to the top several feet of soil, thus groundwater flows would not be ' significantly affected. Mitigating Measures The following items are included in the proposal and would minimize adverse impacts: 1) collection of storm water runoff in a storm water sewer system, 2) settling basins to remove solids from runoff, 3) skimmers to remove petroleum pollutants and floating debris, 4) retention ponds to eliminate increases in peak runoff rates, 5) shading of the creek by vegetation, 6) sanitary sewers to protect water quality, and 7) temporary detention ponds during construction to collect silt. Other measures which can minimize water quality problems include frequent street sweeping, litter clean-up, and storm water control facilities maintenance. Design specifications and construction should be reviewed by the city to assure protection of North Creek. If allowed to support marsh vegetation, the retention pond can provide additional wildlife habitat and remove some nutrients from runoff. 33 AIR QUALITY Existing Conditions The Puget Sound area has a typical Pacific Coast marine climate. Temperatures are mild with moderate precipitation, the majority of rain occurring during the winter months. Data taken at Seattle (University of Washington - the closest weather station) show that temperatures vary from an average of 40~ in January to 650 in July, with 530F the annual average. Extreme temperatures are unusual. Temperatures rarely reach 1000F in summer or O~ in winter. Precipitation averages 35 inches annually but can vary from 22 to 48 inches. December is the month with the maximum, an average precipitation of 5.5 inches and July the least with an average of less than 0.8 inches. The maximum precipitation for one day is just under 3 inches. Snowfall averages about 8 inches annually from a minimum of zero and a maximum of 34 inches. Wind patterns at Lake Forest Park (from Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency records) indicate that prevailing winds are south-southwesterly 30% of the time, northerly 20% of the time and calm 596 of the time. Southerly winds prevail during the winter months and northerly winds prevail during the summer months. Meteorology creating the "worst case" air quality conditions is most likely to occur for several days during the late winter months with overcast skies. Localized inversions can occur under northerly winds during the late summer and fall months but usually disperse each afternoon. Drainage wind patterns, influenced primarily by topography under calm night conditions, will be generally southeasterly towards Woodinville. The site has flat terrain and is presently undeveloped. The nearest complete air monitoring station is operated at the Tulalip Test Facility, adjacent to Interstate 5, north of Everett in a similarly undeveloped area. Oxidant has also been measured at the Fernwood Fire Station at 180th Avenue S.E. and 32nd Street S.E. Carbon monoxide has been measured at three locations in the immediate vicinity of the site by the Washington State Department of Transportation. A summary of the data is shown in Table II. As shown in Table II, the air quality in the area is excellent. Suspended particulate levels are quite low, among the lowest in the region. Nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are also well below standards. The proximity of the Tulalip station to Interstate 5, accompanied by the light winds found in the area, may have contributed to 34 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I !I I I I !I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I TABLE U AIR QUALITY SUMMARY TULALlP TEST FACILITY Pollutants ' Sampling Data Years Parameter Standard 1975 1976 1977 Suspended Particulate Annual Mean 60 ug/m3 20 ug/m3 26 ug/m3 19 ug/m3 Sulfur Dioxide Annual Mean 0.02 ppm 0.00 ppm 0.00 ppm 0.00 ppm 24 hour max. 0.10 ppm 0.00 ppm 0.01 ppm 0.00 ppm 1 hour max. 0.40 ppm 0.02 ppm* 0.03 ppm 0.002 ppm* Nitrogen Dioxide Annual Mean 0.0 ppm 0.002 ppm 0.009 ppm - 24 hour max. None 0.02 ppm 0.03 ppm - 1 hour max. None 0.06 ppm 0.06 ppm - Carbon Monoxide 1 hour max. 35 ppm - 2 ppm* 2 ppm* 8 hour max. 9 ppm - 1 ppm* I ppm* Hydrocarbons 3 hour max. 0.24 ppm 0.23 ppm 0.43 ppm - (6-9 AM) No. of occur- rences greater than 0.24 ppm - 0 5 - Oxidant Not measured - - - - 1977 1978 Oxidant I hour max. 0.12 ppm .10 ppm .07 ppm FERN WOOD FIRE STATION Standard 1974 1977 Carbon Monoxide 1 hour max. 35 ppm 10 ppm - 8 hour max. 9 ppm 4 ppm - 10lst AVENUE &. SR 522 (BOTHELL) Carbon Monoxide I hour max. 35 ppm 5 ppm 8 hour max. 9 ppm 4 ppm WOODlNVILLE CEMETERY Carbon Monoxide 1 hour max. 35 ppm 7 ppm 8 hour max. 9 ppm 5 ppm WOODlNVILLE ELEMENT AR Y SCHOOL 35 the occasional elevated hydrocarbon levels at the site. Sulfur dioxide was well below the standard. Oxidant levels at the Fernwood Fire Station, about ten miles north of the site, are within the new EPA standards. Carbon monoxide levels are within the air quality standards as shown by the data. When the station was first established at the elementary school, high carbon monoxide values were recorded the first nineteen hours of sampling. The data showed a one-hour maximum of 10 ppm and an eight-hour maxImum of 8 ppm. There are three reasons to believe that these high values are erroneous. First, data taken simultaneously at the Woodinville cemetery, across the street, showed concentrations averaging less than half those obtained at the elementary school. Secondly, high concentrations were recorded between midnight and 6:00 AM, a period of almost no traffic or other source of carbon monoxide. And third, these values do not follow the general pattern of diurnal fluctuations in concentrations that can normally be expected to occur. On this basis, it was assumed that the first nineteen hours of data were caused, in part. by an equipment malfunction and yielded erroneous data. These figures were therefore deleted from the anal ysis. The site is in a non-attainment area for carbon monoxide and oxidant, which includes the greater Everett-5eattle-Tacoma area. Under the state implementation plan, regional transportation control strategies will be implemented to attain compliance with these ambient air standards by 1987. Included in these strategies is a vehicle inspection/maintenance program scheduled for implementation in 1981. In general, however, existing pollutant concentrations in the area are quite low. Pollutant concentrations at the site are expected to be similar to those found at the monitoring stations. The majority of pollutants in the area are created by vehicular traffic, with carbon monoxide the principal emission. Other sources of pollutants on the present site are negligible in comparison to those pollutants emitted by vehicles on the arterials NE 195th Street, 120th Avenue NE and Interstate 405. Environmental Impact Air pollutants created by the project are expected to be: 1) pollutants emitted from the heating and cooling of the buildings; 2) pollutants from vehicles added to the local roads and arterials; and 3) short-term pollutants created during construction activity. At the present time it is anticipated that the project will be heated and operated by a combination of electricity and natural gas. Table III shows projected annual and "worst- case" day emission levels if natural gas is used for all heating. 36 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I .1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I TABLE m EMISSIONS DUE TO HEATING Pollutant Annual T ons/Y ear "Worst-Case" Day Pounds Particulate 1.3 25 - 30 Oxides of Sui fur 0.1 1-2 Carbon Mono xide 2.7 50 - 60 Hydrocarbons 1.1 20 - 25 Oxides of Nit rogen 16.0 300 - 350 Emissions due to heating with natural gas are low; natural gas is the cleanest of all fossil fuels and produces the lowest emission levels. The majority of pollutant emissions is due to vehicle activity in parking areas, and on adjacent roads and arterials. Of the pollutants emitted from automobiles, carbon monoxide occurs in the greatest quantity and is the one most likely to exceed the ambient air standard. There would be an increase in vehicle-related activity in the area between now and 1985, due to the proposed project. Concurrently, however, federal standards for vehicle emissions are becoming increasingly stringent, causing a decline in vehicle-related emissions. Based on existing data and implementation of federal law, vehicle emissions are expected to decline as shown in Table IV for the various vehicle speeds (indicated by Environmental Protection Agency emission factors). From the available data on traffic and traffic speeds (see TRAFFIC AND CIRCULA- TION section), a California Division of Highways line source model (Caline 3) was used to predict the existing and future concentrations of carbon monoxide. Receptor sites were located just south of SE 195th Street and just west of Interstate 405 and are shown in Figure 6a. Table V shows concentrations at the receptor sites at the right-of-way line of 1-405 and NE 195th Street respectively. 37 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I TABLE IV CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSION FACTORS FOR VARIOUS VEHICLE SPEEDS. (gm/mil M.P.H. 10 25 30 45 50 1980 - - 49 - 35 1985 60 31 27 20 - · Assumes an engine condition 50 percent hot stabilized, 30 percent hot start and 20 percent cold start. Vehicle distri- bution is 88 percent autos, 10 percent light trucks, and 2 percent heavy trucks and buses. Eight-hour carbon monoxide levels are predicted to be well below the standard, assuming that adequate improvements to local streets and intersections are completed as suggested in the TRANSPORTATION AND CIRCULATION section. (Without street improvements, the traffic from the proposed project would cause federal standards to be exceeded.) Background concentrations of up to 4 ppm are predicted and must be added to the localized concentrations in Table V. The eight-hour standards would not be exceeded by the addition of a 4 ppm background concentration to the localized concentrations. There would be a short-term increase in summertime dust levels due to construction of the project. However, this would be confined to the area under construction and would cease upon occupancy by the tenants. Mitigating Measures Dust resulting from construction work can be minimized through the use of good operational techniques, such as watering of exposed areas. Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency regulations require that precautions be taken to minimize the entrain- ment of dust in the ambient air. Other precautions should include careful design of all street and driveway systems to provide the best circulation of vehicles possible to reduce traffic congestion and vehicle-idling times. See TRANSPORTATION AND CIRCULATION section for mitiga- ting measures to improve vehicle circulation. 39 Assumptions: Meteorological Conditbons: Temperature = 40 F "E" - Atmospheric Stability Wind Speed = I metrlsec. (2 MPH) Wind Direction - Northeasterly (drainage flow) Carbon Monoxide Standards I Hour - 35 ppm 8 Hour - 9 ppm I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I TABLE V PREDICTED EIGHT-HOUR CON CENTRA TIONS OF CARBON MONOXIDE (ppm) Site I 2 West of South of Year Source (speed) 1-405 NE 195th 1980 (Existing Conditions) 1-405 (50) 2.4 0.0 NE 195th (30) 0.1 0.4 Total 2.5 0.4 1985 w/o project 1-405 (45) 1.7 0.0 NE 195th (30) 0.1 0.3 Total 1.8 0.3 1985 wI project 1-405 (45) 2.1 0.0 w/o mitigating measures NE 195th (10) 0.2 1.6 Access Road (10) 0.3 1.4 Total 2.6 3.0 1985 wI project 1-405 (45) 2. I 0.0 wI mitigating measures NE 195th (25) 0.1 0.9 Access Road (2.5) 0.2 0.7 Total 2.4 1.6 NOISE Existing Conditions To determine existing noise levels on the site, me~urements were taken at seven locations at three different times. The measurement locations are shown in Figure 7. A summary of the noise readings is shown in Table VI. See Appendix A for a general description of noise. 40 TABLE VI EXISTING NOISE LEVELS (dBA) Midday Peak Hour Night I PM - 3 PM 4 PM - 6 PM 11 PM - I AM Location LIO L50 L90 LIO L50 L90 LIO L50 L90 I. End of 31st Ave. SE adjacent to Monte Villa Farms 64 59 54 68 64 60 60 56 47 2. 120th N.E. at Bothell city limits 64 49 45 70 58 53 50 48 45 3. NE Holly Hills Dr off NE 195th 49 47 46 55 54 53 51 48 45 4. NE 195th at 120th NE NE corner 63 46 44 63 55 53 51 50 47 5. NE 195th at North Creek 66 54 51 64 60 58 56 52 50 6. Across from 19121 Beardslee Blvd. 66 60 57 66 61 58 57 54 50 7. 112th NE at NE 200th 79 76 69 81 78 73 74 64 56 Noise measurements were taken on Wednesday and Thursday, May 21-22, 1980, with a Quest 215 Type II sound level meter with wind screen attached. The meter was calibrated before and after each set of readings with a CA-12 calibrator. Weather was variable. During the midday readings the weather was overcast, temperature approximately 55~ with no winds. Weather during the peak hour readings was partly cloudy, temperature about "OF with winds gusting to 8-12 mph. During the night readings, weather was partly cloudy, temperature about 50~ with no winds. Synopsis of noise me~surements: Site I -. A t this location the principal source of noise was traffic on Interstate 405. A plane flyover occurred during the peak hour readings. Chirping birds were audible during the midday readings. 42 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Site 2 Traffic on Interstate 405 was audible, but not the principal noise source, with the exception of loud trucks climbing the grade out of the valley. Local traffic on 120th NE had a more significant impact. Chirping birds were also audible and distinct during the midday and peak hour readings. Site 3 The principal source of noise was traffic on Interstate 405 at the interchange with > SR 522. A plane and jet flyover and a passing motorcycle occurred during the peak hour readings. Site 4 Sources of noise were local traffic on NE 195th Street and Interstate 405. During the midday and peak hour readings, chirping birds were audible. Two plane flyovers and a mooing cow also contributed to the noise at this site. Site 5 Principal sources of noise were local traffic on NE 195th Street and Interstate 405. A plane and jet flyover also occurred. Barking dogs contributed to the midday noise readings. Site 6 Traffic on Beardslee Boulevard and Interstate 405 was the principal source of noise. Other sources during the midday and peak hour readings included chirping birds (quite loud), a plane flyover and some boys playing basketball at the house adjacent to the site. Site 7 Traffic on Interstate 405 was the dominant noise source, overwhelming any other potential noise source. In summary, the dominant source of noise surrounding the site is traffic on Interstate 405 and on local streets. Other sources affected the noise levels but were of short duration. Based on the noise. readings shown in Table VI, existing Ldn noise levels (day/night average) and the corresponding EPA designation are shown in Table VII. 43 TABLE VD Ldn NOISE LEVELS Site Ldn (dBA) EPA Designation I 66 Significant adverse noise impacts exist 2 65 Adverse noise impacts exist 3 57 " " " " 4 60 " " " " " 5 62 " " n " 6 64 " " " " 7 80 Unacceptable public health and welfare impacts Environmental Impact There are two principal noise impacts that would be created by the proposed develop- ment. There would be a long-term increase in noise levels created by additional traffic on and adjacent to the site and a short-term increase in noise during construction of the new facilities. The principal long-term increase in noise would come from the increased traffic volumes attracted to the site. Table VIII shows the predicted Ldn levels with and without the project. A graphic representation of the existing conditions and predicted impact on noise is shown in Figure 7a. TABLE vm PREDICTED LdnNOISE LEVELS (dBA) Existing 1985 Without Proiect EPA Change Designation 1985 With Proiect l:.PA Ldn Change Designation Site cPA Designation* Ldn Ldn I 66 SA 67 +1 SA 68 +2 SA 2 65 A 66 +1 SA 66 +1 SA 3 57 A 57 0 A 58 +1 A 4 60 A 61 +1 A 61 +1 A 5 62 A 63 +1 A 67 +5 SA 6 64 A 65 +1 A 66 +2 SA 7 80 U 81 +1 U 82 +2 U * GA- Generally Acceptable A- Adverse noise impacts exist SA - Significant Adverse noise impacts exist U- Unacceptable public health &. welfare impacts 44 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I As shown in Table VIII, there would be a small increase in noise levels on the site even without the project. With the proposed project, the noise increases would be small, except near noise measurement sites 5 and 6. The traffic increase along NE 195th Street would create the noise increase near site 5. The additional traffic (1-405 south of NE 195th) would create the noise increase at measurement site 6. Both sites 5 and 6 would change from EPA designation "adverse noise impacts exist" to "significant adverse noise impacts exist". The EPA designation at the other sites would remain unchanged. The noise increases on the site itself would occur primarily during daylight hours.. conforming to the work schedule of most employees on the site. There would also be a short-term increase in daytime noise levels due to construction activity. The following chart lists typical noise levels which can normally be expected from the types of equipment used in construction: NOISE LEVEL (dBA at 50 feet> Earth-Moving Equipment Tractors Trucks Backhoes Graders Compactors (rollers) Materials-Handling Concrete Mixers Concrete Pumps 70 - 95 82 - 94 71 - 93 80 - 94 73 - 74 75 - 88 81 - 84 Impact Equipment Pneumatic Wrenches Jack Hammers (and rock drills) 82 - 88 81 - 98 Other Vibrators Saws 69 - 82 72 - 82 Noise from construction activities will generally range from 69 to 95 dBA, with some higher peaks if impact equipment is used. Construction noises around the site would cease upon completion of the project. Mitigatinl!: Measures Long-term mitigating measures are difficult to implement because the principal noise increase is due to the traffic that the proposed project would generate. The noise 46 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I levels predicted address the "worst-case" traffic generation. Measures to mitigate traffic patterns are found in the TRANSPORTATION and CIRCULATION section. Noise abatement procedures during construction could include: Using and maintaining properly operating mufflers and quieting devices; Using the quietest available machinery and equipment; Using electric equipment in preference to gas, diesel or pneumatic machinery; Locating construction equipment as far from nearby noise sensitive properties as possible; Shutting off idling equipment; Limiting construction hours to coincide with the normal workday period (e.g. 8 AM to 6 PM weekdays). NATURAL RESOURCES Existinl!: Conditions The site contains prime agricultural soils and a creek that has been previously characterized as a salmon transit corridor for productive upstream spawning and rearing areas (described in the WILDLIFE section of this report). Due to surrounding improvements, such as streets and utilities, property taxes and agricultural trends, (larger farms and cooperative systems), agricultural use of the site is no longer feasible. The only other natural resource would be the large parcel of vacant, undeveloped land in a rapidly developing area of King County. Environmental Impact Existing non-productive agricultural land, topsoil, natural vegetation, wildlife and the fishery resources would be affected with development at proposed levels. Fossil fuels would be consumed by construction activities and by vehicles traveling to and from the project upon completion. Building construction would result in the consumption of concrete, metal, asphalt, lumber and other resources. These material construction requirements would be substantially the same at alternative locations. Electrical energy and natural gas would be consumed by facility operation. The undeveloped land itself would be committed to the proposed uses for the foreseeable future and alternative uses for the site would be lost or substantially reduced. Mitigating Measures Careful placement of the buildings on the site and clustering could provide for more continuous open landscaped areas. The configuration of North Creek would be changed to a meandering pattern, with tree cover and natural habitat cover added to improve the water quality of North Creek. 47 Provisions for community access to North Creek would result by developing a trail along the creek and by providing open space which could be utilized by the public as a recreational area. Such provisions would eliminate the impact of losing the undevel- oped natural site by providing future public access to and use of portions of North Creek as a recreational area. The development would utilize significant site and building energy conservation techniques, including site orientation, appropriate overhangs, and landscaping. LIGHT AND GLARE Existinl!: Conditions Light and glare in the vicinity of the proposed development site are produced by both stationary and mobile sources. The stationary sources are largely attributable to: J) freeway lighting to the west of the site, 2) existing single family homes above on the hillsides, and 3) light and glare from the two homes located on the development site and visible from the freeway. Mobile sources originate primarily from motor vehicles traveling on Interstate 405, NE 95th Street and 120th Avenue NE. Environmental Impact The proposal would add sources of light to the site from overhead lighting of roadways and parking areas and from buildings, including interior lighting of offices and retail/commercial spaces. Lighting on the site would be visible to residents living on the adjacent hillsides. Those uses generally operating from 8 AM to 5 PM would not be a major source of light during the evening hours when most residents are home. Headlight glare from vehicles within the parking lot might be visible to the same single family residences on the adjacent hillsides. Any construction-related lighting would be for security purposes and would conform to the guidelines set forth below. It is not anticipated that construction would proceed after dark. Mitigatinl!: Measures All measures will be taken to have on-site lighting contribute to the safe and efficient use of the development site without casting glare onto adjacent lots or streets. Lighting design will conform with all applicable regulations and with energy-saving guidelines. To implement these objectives, the following measures will be incorporated into the lighting design: 48 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I. All lighting visible from an adjacent street shall be indirect or shall incorporate a full shielded fixture. 2. Parking areas, access drives and internal vehicular circulation areas shall be uniformly light, with a maintained average illumination level of I-foot candle (to a minimum of 0.3 foot candle). 3. Any necessary service area illumination shall be contained within such areas, with no spillover occuring outside this area. 4. Building illumination, signs and architectural lighting shall be indirect in character (no visible light source). 5. Pedestrian walkway lighting should be uniform in outdoor use areas, or "point-to- point" to identify pedestrian walkways and directions of travel. RISK OF EXPLOSION OR HAZARDOUS EMISSIONS Existing Conditons There is currently no activity on the site that would present a risk of an explosion or emission of hazardous substances. Environmental Impact During the construction phases of the development, a temporary risk of equipment accidents would occur. At this time, it is not known whether the warehousing of volatile materials can be expected. If such a use is proposed, the City of Bothell should condition granting a building permit on compliance with applicable safety ordinances. Mitigating Measures It is not anticipated that warehousing or the production of hazardous or dangerous materials would occur on the site. Such a use would be subject to governmental approval. Safety measures would also be observed during construction and the risk of explosion would be no greater than at similar construction sites. The discharge of any chemicals into the sanitary or storm sewers would be conditional upon conformance with regulations governing such discharge. The disposal of chemicals directly into North Creek would not be permitted. Anyon-site spillage would be guarded against by the exercise of utmost care. Surface spillage occurring on the site would be handled by consultation with experts in this area and, where possible, by storm water retention ponds. 49 LAND USE Existinl!: Land Use The site is mostly vacant, agricultural land which has not been farmed since 1973. Three residences and several farm buildings are clustered on the southwest portion near the freeway interchange, and a small amount of agricultural activity occurs in conjunction with the residences. Properties to the north and south are currently in agricultural use, predominantly pasture land for dairy cattle, with some row crops. The wooded hillside to the east is mostly undeveloped, with one residence located at the base of the slope near the south corner of the site. To the west, beyond the 1-405 freeway, several houses, mostly older and on large lots, are scattered along the base of the wooded hillside. Scattered areas of suburban-density, single-family subdivisions and mobile home parks are located on the plateaus to the east and west, and to the south of SR 522. Existinl!: Zoninl!: The site is currently zoned for agricultural use. Land to the south, both within Bothell and in King County, is also zoned agricultural. The Snohomish County zoning to the north is RC, Rural Conservation. The hillsides and plateaus to the east and west of the site are zoned for various densities of single-family use, from one to four lots per acre. It is anticipated that much of the surrounding land will be reclassified prior to development in line with the uses and densities designated in the applicable comprehen- sive plans described in the following section (Comprehensive Plans). These plans generally indicate that the valley floor area will eventually be predominantly zoned for commercial and light manufacturing use and that the surrounding hillsides and plateaus will include areas zoned for single-family, multi-family, professional office and neighborhood business uses. In this regard, Bothell City Council adopted Ordinance No. 971 amending the city's comprehensive zoning ordinance. This amendment creates and defines new land use classifications intended to implement the comprehensive plan. Actual reclassification of land has not yet occurred. Comprehensive Plans City of Bothell: The primary instrument for regulating development on the site is the recently adopted North Creek Valley Comprehensive Plan, which supplements the Bothell Comprehensive Plan. The new plan details community goals and objectives for developments of the North Creek Valley and surrounding hillsides. The boundaries of 50 I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I : I I I I I I I I I I I I , I I the planning area include land within three jurisdictions: Bothell, King County and Sno- homish County, as shown on Figure 8. Although the policies of the Plan cannot be legally enforced beyond the boundaries of the City of Bothell, the Plan will help to coordinate planning and decision-making regarding adjacent lands within ~he valley "influence area". The Plan recommends designating the portion of the planning area within the City of Bothell as a Special District. The District is to be governed by the Plan's policies and standards with respect to use, and density with rezones as necessary, .obtained as part of project development approval. The Plan incorporates the concept of impervious surface coverage and the concept of slope in standards for lot coverage. The standards reflect the desire to improve the local tax base while retaining the semi-rural, residential quality of life in the area. In order to further these aims, most development in the planning area is subject to the Planned Unit Development process. The following text is excerpted from the Plan and gives the adopted Goals and Objectives for the planning area, and the specific policies for development of the valley floor and for upgrading of North Creek (which flows through the subject site). Applicable recreation, transportation, and utilities policies are also listed. Goal: Objective I: Objective 2: Objective 3: Objective 4: Objective 5: SECTION ONE GENERAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES FOR THE NORTH CREEK VALLEY PLANNING AREA Recognize the North Creek Valley as a unique resource suitable for a multiplicity of uses by providing for a variety of uses which will be compatible with each other and with the setting. Uses within the North Creek Valley Planning Area should be regulated to preserve and improve the quality of life in Bothell. The upgrading of North Creek as an important fisheries resource should be given a high priority consideration. Uses within the North Creek Valley Planning Area should make a positive contribution to housing, local employment oppor- tunity and the tax base without contributing to visual, air, light, water or noise pollution problems. Make a major contribution to the Open Space needs of the Northshore Community by promoting the use of land for certain agricultural, recreational and open space uses without locking the valley floor into mandatory agr icultural use. Utilize the unique setting of the North Creek Valley Planning Area to help meet the recreational needs of the Northshore Area. 51 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Objective 6: Objective 7: Objective 8: Objective 9: Objective 10: Development on the wooded slopes should be in conformance with the general development policies of the Bothell Compre- hensive Plan with particular attention to the feathered edge concept and the retention and encouragement of tree cover to minimize the visual impact. Development in upland areas should provide needed housing opportunities and related neighborhood amenities while retain- ing the natural character of the area to the maximum extent feasible. Streets and utilities in the Planning Area should be planned to support the variety of uses and should provide a logical network related to all segments of the planning area and to the community at large. 1-405 and SR 522 should be recognized and utilized as the major transportation spines for the area, but should be acous- tically and visually screened from the surrounding area. Encourage expanded public transportation throughout the Planning Area. SECTION TWO POLICIES FOR THE NORTH CREEK VALLEY PLANNING AREA I. POLICIES FOR THE V ALLEY FLOOR I. All developments on the valley floor shall be subject to the Planned Unit Development process with a general set of standards developed that will be applied through this process including architectural and landscaping conceptual approval as part of the preliminary PUD. 2. Open space should be encouraged to the maximum extent practical in all developments on the valley floor. If large areas of impervious surfaces are necessary, landscaping should be extensively utilized to avoid negative visual impacts on the surrounding areas including adjacent upland and slope areas. 3. An impervious surface coverage allotment shall be utilized as a foundation of the plan. This gives limited development rights to every property owner in the valley while providing enough control to limit negative impacts on the environment. It helps maintain open space and leaves agricultural and development choices open for future generations since land once covered by an impervious surface can not be easily returned to agricultural/open space uses. 4. The types of uses that will be encouraged subject to adequate controls to preserve and improve the quality of life in Bothell include: A. Non-polluting manufacturing B. Business-professional uses C. Educational facilities D. Recreation facilities E. Non-freeway oriented public accommodations F. Retail outlets 53 S4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I G. Hospitals, clinics, medical-professional buildings H. Multi-family residential uses 5. The following uses are to be restricted from the valley floor: A. Single-family and mobile home residential uses B. Open storage except for certain agricultural purposes 6. Energy conservation should be one of the major considerations in the locations and specific siting of buildings and landscaping. II. POLICIES RELATED TO NORTH CREEK I. Surface water discharge systems entering North Creek should be designed to control the quality of water as well as the quantity. The quality should be equal to or better than occurs naturally. 2. Surface water run-off flowing into North Creek should utilize a sewerage system if necessary to maintain established water quality and water quantity levels. It is the intention of this policy to keep pesticides and herbicides such as are utilized on ornamental plantings and agricultural crops as well as animal wastes out of North Creek. 3. Potential flood plains along North Creek should be protected to eliminate the necessity for further channelization of the Creek for flood control purposes. A. Pending a detailed study by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers or HUD, no development should be allowed within the Shoreline Management Areas of North Creek. B. Flood plain zoning should be used to protect the floodway, and zoning and flood proofing techniques should be used to protect the flood fringe in any flood plain. 4. North Creek should be upgraded to a major fisheries area. A. The feasibility of meandering North Creek should be explored. If this is at all practical, the City of Bothell should work with interested state agencies in developing a plan for North Creek which could be accomplished over time either as a public works project or by private developments as they occur. B. Short of major relocations, design standards should be developed with the appropriate agencies to allow for the ultimate upgrad- ing of North Creek within its existing channel or for minor deviations carried out as part of private development concepts. C. The location of fish rearing ponds and other fisheries related facilities in the valley which could relate to North Creek should be seriously promoted. V. POLICIES FOR RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE I. A sports field complex should be developed on the valley floor designed to serve the active recreational needs of the Northshore area. 2. Commercial recreational uses of an open space nature such as golf courses and riding stables should be encouraged. I I I I I I I I I I I I I' I I I I I I 3. By purchase and easement agreements, develop the capability for a complete trail network in the North Creek Valley Planning Area. A. Trails along both sides of North Creek should be coordinated with any relocation plans for North Creek. B. Trails along North Creek should utilize culverts and bridges for crossing under highways and major streets to insure complete separation from vehicular traffic. C. Final development of these trails should wait for the flood plain study so grade changes, berms, walls and massive plantings can be used to partially deflect noise from 1-405 and SR 522. D. Any development whatever in the North Creek Valley Planning Area other than traditional large acreage agricultural practices should include provisions for pedestrian access. 4. Joint use of parking lots in the area should be encouraged to allow recreational users off.hours use of developed parking. 6. Require all development proposals to indicate the nature of the open space to be left and how it is to be maintained. A. Open Space Categories may include: sports fields natural open space certain commercial recreation areas semi-public passive areas or trails publicly dedicated open space agricultural space formally landscaped areas 7. Credit for open space requirements for private development may be transferred to other areas on the valley floor. VI. POLICIES RELATED TO STREETS AND UTILITIES I. Development of all new streets and utili ties in undeveloped areas should be at private developer's expense in accordance with the patterns and standards established by the Plan. 2. Encourage orderly development of property as the need arises based on the proximity of existing streets and utilities. However, in cases where development is beyond the range of existing facilities the developer should make the necessary off-site improvements and depend on late comers fees to compensate for the additional cost. 3. Provide adequate east-west access in the planning area by establish- ing a connection for NE 195th Street. 4. Develop a complete collector system to support the level of develop- ment allowed in the planning area. 5. Avoid long dead-end streets by providing for logical connections between areas potentially available for development. 6. Sewer lines provided in the planning area should be sized to accom- modate adjacent service areas at their appropriate density. 55 56 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VII. POLICIES RELATED TO 1-405 AND SR 522 I. The negative visual impact of buildings with their rear elevation facing 1-405 or SR 522 shall by avoided by building orientation and design and/or effective screening and stringent control of trash receptacles and loading areas. 2. The WSHD should be encouraged to heavily landscape the area within its R.O.W. 3. Building design and location should be planned to act as noise buffers from the freeway. 4. Commercial development in the North Creek Valley shall not include businesses which are dependent on attracting freeway motorists in order to sustain themselves. Commercial signs should not be oriented towards attracting the traveling public. The intent of this standard is to encourage a variety of businesses, such as corporate offices, a convention center complex, restaurants, computer software sales, and various professional offices to locate as a group in the Valley without the economic need for freeway advertising. 5. No street or access road should be constructed immediately adjacent to a freeway interchange. Street intersections should not impair or disrupt easy access on and off freeways. Snohomish County: Adjacent property to the north is in Snohomish County and is part of the county's North Creek Planning Area. The land falls into two designations on the North Creek Comprehensive Plan map. The westerly area, within about 800 feet of the freeway, is designated "suburban", for residential development at one to four dwelling uni ts per acre. The balance, and the greater portion, of the land to the north is designated "water- shed - site sensitive areas". This designation is applied to existing valley agricultural land as well as to other sensitive areas. Although the North Creek Plan encourages the retention of viable agricultural enterprises, it also establishes policies for conversion to urban uses when farming is no longer economically feasible. The above described Snohomish County lands within approximately one-quarter mile north of the subject site are overlapped by the "valley floor" portion of Bothell's North Creek Valley Planning Area, and are thereby influenced by. the same development guidelines as the site. Although no formal mechanism exists for enforcement of Bothell's policies within Snohomish County, informal discussions have taken. place between the two jurisdictions regarding compatibility of their policies within this overlap area. The policies of the two plans are generally consistent over most of the affected area with regard to commercial and industrial development, differing slightly in allowable impervious surface and in the method of development control, i.e. planned I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I unit development in Bothell vs. site plan review in Snohomish County. The major difference between the plans is in the "suburban" (residential) designation by Snohomish County in the westerly part of the overlap area which is in conflict with the Bothell Plan's policy restricting single-family and mobile home residential uses in the valley floor area. In summary, Bothell's adopted policies guiding future development of the subject site are generally consistent with policies affecting adjacent land within Snohomish County, and further communication between the two jurisdictions is required to provide an adequate forum for resolving inconsistencies and for providing adequate protection of the rights of affected property owners. Kinl!: County: Adjacent properties to the east of the northern half of the subject site, and in proximity to the southwest portion of the site, are in unincorporated King County and are part of the Holly Hill community which is part of King County's Northshore Community Planning Area. King County's Northshore Community Development Plan designates the land to the northeast for residential use at three dwelling units per acre. This designation is generally consistent with Bothell's North Creek Valley Plan which indicates basically residential use, with some multi-family and office-professional uses allowed on areas of less than 15% slope. The King County areas near the southwest portion of the site are currently undergoing a plan amendment process which may modify the current two-dwelling per acre designa- tion. Draft proposals indicate a possibility of higher density residential use as well as some professional office and manufacturing park uses. The uses proposed in the Bothell North Creek Valley Plan would be compatible with the uses proposed in the new King County plan. However, the proposed King County plan is less restrictive and could allow more intensive development that would adversely affect projects developed under Ci ty of Bothell regulations. Informal discussions have taken place between King County and Bothell officials. Further discussions are needed to resolve plan discrepancies. In summary, King County and Bothell are maintaining informal communications which appear to be effective in avoiding any major problems within the areas of overlapping influence, and no significant incompatibilities in policies can be identified which would indicate that development of the subject site per Bothell's guidelines would create a significant conflict with the policies controlling development of adjacent or nearby lands within unincorporated King County. 57 Kin!!: Couny Subre!!:ional Plan: In this plan, Bothell is designated as an activity center. The City is currently in the process of endorsing this plan and developing a proposal that the North Creek Valley be included in the Activity Center designation. Environmental Impact Approval of the rezone would allow the vacant agricultural land to be developed as a commercial, office and light industrial center. The requested rezone is "Mixed Use Zone" (MU), which is consistent with the proposed development. The purpose of this newly created zone is to permit a wide variety and types of uses. The direct impacts of this proposal, limited to the site, may have secondary impacts on adjacent land uses. These secondary impacts would be regulated by the North Creek Valley Special District Ordinance. The development of the site on the North Creek Valley floor would likely create pressure for more rapid development of flanking hillsides into residential areas. Chapter 17.15 to the zoning ordinance anticipates this development need by designating a "Hillside Residential/O-P Zone" to regulate development in hilly areas in a manner which substantially preserves the natural wooded character of the area. The intensity of the proposed project would have the indirect effect of encouraging further development on other land parcels on the valley floor. Similar proposals are being considered by other developers for parcels directly south of the Koll site. Increased pressure may occur to amend Snohomish County's North Creek Compre- hensive Plan and to rezone parcels north of the site to more intensive uses. The proposal is in general conformance with the goals and policies of the Comprehen- sive Plans discussed above. Mitigatin!!: Measures To minimize impacts on surrounding land uses, the development would be controlled by mandatory adherence to applicable land use codes and regulations and the CC &. R's of the development. The proposed concept is designed to minimize adverse effects on surrounding land and on the site itself. Mitigating measures include greenbelt and open space, meandering the North Creek Channel, augmenting the proposed North Creek Pedestrian Trail System, enhancing the quality of the creek as a fisheries and wildlife habitat, and strict adherence to covenants, codes and restrictions which serve as design guidelines and aid in the review of plans submitted for approval. Control of the development will be accomplished through development standards of the CC &. R's, and the Bothell Zoning Code. 58 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I , I 'I . Elements of the Human Environment POPULATION AND HOUSING Existin!!: Conditions The proposal site is located within Census Tract 218 (see Figure 9), but for purposes of this study, Census Tracts 217, 219, 220, 221, 323 and 519 will also be considered for analysis (see Table IX). These seven Census Tracts include the entire North Creek Valley Planning area and the area immediately surrounding the proposed site which represents the population and housing groups potentially impacted by the proposal. King County and Snohomish County are included in the table for comparison purposes. Puget Sound Council of Governments (PSCOG) most recent projections for population growth in the next twenty years indicate that the population of Census Tract 218 (A.A.M. District 4530) is projected to rise to nearly 12,000 people by the year 2000. This represents a 103 percent increase over 1970 levels and a 65 percent increase over estimated 1980 levels (see Table X). Census Tract 218 is typical of King County characteristics with a few exceptions: 1) the number of persons/household is higher in the study area than in King and Snohomish Counties, 2) the median value of housing units is higher in Census Tract 218, and 3) the percentage of owner-occupied housing units is higher in this tract. Age distribution patterns for residents of the census tract in which the proposed site is located, adjacent tracts and King and Snohomish Counties are compared in Table IX. The distribution patterns fall within a 4 percent differential. Table Xl shows data on housing within the study area. As discussed above, the size of families, median house values and median rents are higher in Census Tract 218 than in the county. In addition, there is a low demand to rent homes and a high demand to buy in relation to the counties as a whole. Two housing units are located on the site. Income characteristics are shown in Table XII. Environmental Impact The two on-site residential housing units would be lost by construction of the proposal. The project may have a secondary impact of accelerating the demand for developing multi-family housing units on the surrounding undeveloped hillsides. A few of the projected 3,550 employees could change their residence locations as a result of the project, although significant relocations are not anticipated. Clientele for possible commercial/retail business would be drawn from existing neighborhoods. S9 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Miti~atin~ Measures Demand for housing units from development of the project could be met by developing presently residential-zoned properties within the upland areas, designated in the North Creek Valley Comprehensive Plan as areas to be developed into housing uses. The Bothell City Council recently adopted an amendment to the Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance which creates a "Hillside Residential/O-p Zone" to regulate development of the hillside areas. Any demand for housing resulting from this proposal has already been considered by the City of Bothell by designating surrounding land "Hillside Residential". TABLE IX PO PULA TION CHARACTERISTICS (J 970 Census Data) King Sno. Census Tract: 217 218 219 220 221 323 519 County County 1970 Population 2,926 5,901 5,422 6,264 4,653 13,246 21,558 1,156,633 265,236 1978 Population* 2,902 6,759 11,200 8,779 5,254 22,176 26,524 1,186,903 292,000 Age(%) Under 10 17.9 21.0 27.8 27.9 24.4 23.5 24.8 17.3 20.7 10-19 18.0 20.4 21.6 16.7 22.0 18.8 20.2 18.8 20.4 20-34 23.8 21.7 23.4 29.3 23.0 24.3 25.2 23.0 21.8 35-64 32.7 28.7 25.2 22.9 27.6 27.3 25.9 32. I 29.7 Over 65 7.6 8.2 2.0 3.2 3.0 6. I 3.9 8.8 7.4 Sex % Male 50.3 49.1 50.4 49.7 49.3 50.4 50.4 48.7 49.8 Race % Black 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.3 3.5 0.4 * PSCOG 1978 estimate Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1970 61 TABLE X POPULA TION PROJECTIONS 1970 1980 1990 2000 A.A.M District 4530** <Corresponding Census Tract 218). February,1977 5,945 6,666 June, 1979 5,945 7,259 8,484 9,277 10,691 11,959 **PSCOG T-208 Projection TABLE XI HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS King Sno. Census Tracts: 217 218 219 220 221 323 519 Countv County Year-Round Housing Units 1,074 1,804 1,429 1,899 1,249 4,237 6,270 423,183 88,044 Persons/ Household 2.n 3.26 3.79 3.30 3.75 3.12 3.43 2.72 2.97 Median Value 23,500 3,800 29,800 23,600 22,900 23,800 22,200 2 1,700 20,800 Median Rent 134 137 128 129 - 127 128 120 134 Year-Round % Vacant 5.77 4.60 5.45 7.42 .4 8.02 4.26 4.35 7.47 % Owner- Occupied 65.64 71.23 88.24 80.99 90.55 68.82 82.00 58.55 59.25 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1970 TABLE XD INCOME CHARACTERISTICS Census Tracts: King Sno. 519 County County 217 218 219 220 221 323 Median Income % Below Poverty 11,426 11,909 14,143 12,304 12,447 12,156 11,378 11,886 10,897 4.3 4.8 2.8 3.9 5.1 4.1 3.7 5.0 6.0 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1970 62 . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . I '. I . I I I I I I I SOCIAL Existin~ Conditions The lifestyles of the two families presently living on the site are directly affected by the site. These families enjoy the use of the site as private open space and both families maintain large gardens. Indirectly, the lifestyles of' families living adjacent to the site are also affected by the lack of development on the site. The pastoral appearance of the site and lack of activity have a pleasing effect on many persons when they view the site from their homes or when driving past the site. Many other local residents from a larger area may also realize some psychological benefits when viewing the site on a daily basis from their automobiles. Environmental Impact The social environment of the two families presently living on the site may change significantly when they are relocated for the development. As development occurs and the intensity of activity in the area increases, the lifestyles (at least psychologically) of adjacent residents will also change. Adjacent residents will begin to perceive their neighborhoods becoming more suburban and less rural. The differences between physical impacts to lifestyle and perceived impacts often become indistinguishable and unquantifiab1e. TRANSPORTATION AND CIRCULATION Existin~ Conditions Street Descriptions and Operation: The project site is bounded by Interstate 405 on the west, NE 195th Street on the south, and 120th Avenue NE on the east. Northeast 195th Street and 120th Avenue NE are classified as collector arterials. West of the freeway, Beardslee Boulevard is also a collector arterial and leads to downtown Bothell which is about one mile to the southwest. Figure 10 shows the site relationship to these arterials and to downtown Bothell. State "Sign Route" 522 (SR 522) is the primary east-west route in the Bothell area, leading west from Bothell to intersect with 1-5 in North Seattle. State Route 522 also leads east to 1-405 and on to Monroe in Snohomish County. Major north-south traffic through the Bothell area is carried on Interstate 405 and SR 527, also known as Everett 63 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Way NE. Traffic from downtown Bothell reaches 1-405 by either SR 522 or the 195th Street interchange via Beardslee Boulevard or Ross Road. Beardslee Boulevard, Ross Road, NE 195th Street*, and 120th Avenue NE are two-lane arterials. All except Ross Road have 60 feet of right-of-way with asphalt shoulders and posted speed limits of 35 miles per hour. Ross Road has only 40 to 45 feet of right-of- way, no shoulders or curbs, and a 25 mile per hour speed limit. North of Ross Road, Beardslee Boulevard changes to 112th Avenue NE, and has dirt shoulders and a 25-mile per hour speed limit. One Hundred and Twelfth Avenue NE dead-ends at the Snohomish County line. The intersection of Ross Road/NE 195th Street and Beardslee Boulevard/ 112th Avenue NE is controlled with stop signs on Beardslee Boulevard and 112th Avenue NE. Northeast 195th Street ends at the intersection of 120th Avenue NE which is marked with a directional-arrow warning sign and is the only lighted intersection in the area. The freeway overpass is two lanes with two-foot concrete shoulders. Average weekday traffic is shown on Figure 10. Traffic volumes are quite low, even during rush hours because of the generally undeveloped area served by the NE 195th Street interchange with 1-405. The low volumes are also far below the vehicle carrying capacity of any of the streets, and no additional traffic controls such as signals or stop signs appear to be needed. Public Transportation: Bus service is provided to the Bothell area by METRO Transit and Snohomish County Public Transportation. The Snohomish County bus runs from Lynnwood to the Bothell Park-and-Ride Lot off SR 522. The bus leaves hourly during off peak periods and twice hourly during peak hours. The METRO bus connects Bothell to downtown Seattle with buses running hourly during off-peak and twice hourly during peak hours. The intersection of 112th Avenue NE and NE 195th Street is now being used as a makeshift park-and-ride lot for carpools, and accommodates approximately twelve cars. A survey of vehicle occupancy in 1977 showed that the average occupancy per vehicle in the morning rush hour was 1.22 on Ballinger Way near Kenmore. * Since preparation of this EIS began, NE 195th Street has been extended to the east to connect with residential areas. It has not been in place long enough to establish a history of use volumes, but will be considered when volumes are available. This is not expected to significantly affect the conclusions of this study. 6S Traffic Safety: In 1978 and 1979, there were ten reported accidents on the arterials near the site (excluding 1-405). As shown in the diagram below, only two arterial intersections near the site have recorded accidents: (1) the northbound 1-405 off-ramp at NE 195th Street, and (2) 195th Street at 120th Avenue NE with one and two accidents, respectively. The accident rates per million entering vehicles is 2.2 at the 1-405 ramp and 5.7 at the NE 195th and 120th Avenue NE location. Even though the 5.7 accident rate is relatively high (average intersection accident rates at suburban intersections are usually lower than 2.5), there is no real significance here because the "sample" is too small to have any statistical meaning. I I Site I I I I __1925~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ .-1290 n. e. 195th st. LEGEND: . -STOP SIGN .. . a,-TURN ONLY SIGN II n . -ACCIDENT SITE . Trip-Making Characteristics: An origin-destination survey around Bothell was taken on June 24, 1980 for the three classes of land use expected to occur on the site: 1) retail shopping center under 50,000 square feet; 2) light industry; and 3) office park. The survey was conducted by contacting employees at the Woodgate Shopping Center, at light industries and offices along the Woodinville-Snohomish Road, and at the Koll Business Center on 148th NE in Redmond. 66 I I I I I I I ~ I o - : I < !II I ? aI '= I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The survey response was very good for a voluntary, mail-back survey. Out of 70 questionnaires distributed to retail employees, 41 were returned (58%); out of 157 questionnaires distributed to office park employees, 51 were returned (32%), and out of the 776 questionnaires given to the employees at light industrial facilities, 284 were returned (36%). The surveys of visitors to and customers of these businesses had lower response rates, and incomplete information exists as to exactly how many forms were taken. Thirty-five questionnaires were returned for shopping and personal business trips (i.e., visits to doctors, banks, real estate agents, etc.). Neither the office park nor the light industry businesses had many visitors, and the number of returned questionnaires from these two land uses (9 and 12 respectively) were not sufficient for further analysis. However, direct contact with all the employers in the office parks and light industries surveyed revealed that few expected more than one or two visitors daily. The majority of trips to and from these businesses are made by employees going to and from home, and to have lunch, shop or conduct personal business. No attempt was made to estimate the total volume of trips to and from these business types in Bothell; rather, what was sampled and is reported here was the proportions of all tr ips between Bothell and other parts of the urban area. Figures II, 12 and 13, show the trip interchanges for employees between Bothell and the various other communities in the area (i.e., this is where people who work in Bothell go to and come from). Note the substantial differences between retail employees and the others. Table XIII summarizes these patterns. The percentages do not add up to 100% because some areas are included twice (part of "Bothell Vicinity" is in "Snohomish County", for example). TABLE xm PROPORTION OF ALL TRIPS BY TYPES OF EMPLOYMENT Origin Retail Office Park Light Industry Bothell Vicinity 34% 6% 20% Kenmore 8% 4% 2% Snohomish County 15% 20% 33% E. Sammamish Plateau 20% 4% 8% Eastside (King County between Lake Washington and Lake Sammamish) 55% 57% 50% Seattle 10% 12% 9% North of Snohomish County 0% 0% 0.2% Pierce County 0% 0% 1% 67 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Average trip lengths were calculated for trips to and from each type of land use. Table XIV presents this data. TABLE XIV A VERAGE TRIP LENGTHS Type of Trips Average Trip Lengths Retail Employees to/from Work 6.14 miles Office Park Employees to/from Work 8.85 miles Light Industry Employees to/from Work 9.84 miles Shopping and Personal Business Trips 2.89 miles The differences in trip lengths are all statistically significant. Average trip length data for the Seattle urbanized area are not directly comparable with the data here; the Bothell data provide far more detail than regional travel data. However, the average home-to-work trip (all classes of employment) exceeds ten miles in King County, and the average auto trip length is about six miles (all purposes). The conclusion is that average work trip lengths to suburban employment are somewhat less than for the entire county, and this is probably due to the longer average work trips to and from the Seattle CBD. All but two shopping/personal business trips were made by car (two motorbikes were reported), and the average vehicle occupancy was 1.42 persons per car. For the home- to-work trips, the average vehicle occupancies are: I. Retail Home-to-Work = 1.22 persons/vehicle 2. Office Park Home-to-Work = 1.24 persons/vehicle 3. Light Industry Home-to-Work = 1.35 persons/vehicle The average morning peak-hour vehicle occupancy of 1.22 persons per vehicles, from a monitoring station on Ballinger Way near Kenmore, is not significantly different from the occupancies found for the retail and office employees. The 1.35 persons per vehicle occupancy rate for light industry employees is significantly higher and can probably be explained by Commuter Pool Program marketing activities at the larger businesses surveyed, such as General Telephone on the Woodinville-Redmond Highway. Of interest is the fact that no one reported getting to work by bus, only one by bike and one by 71 72 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I walking. Three trips out of the 376 returned employee questionnaires were made by motorcycle, about 0.8% of all work trips made. Environmental Impact . Projection of Existing Traffic Projected population increases in the census tracts discussed in the POPULATION section show that 1980 population and employment levels are expected to increase in the King County portion of the planning area (see Figure 9, Census Tracts) at the rate of approximately 2% per year over the next 10 years. Population and employment in that portion of Snohomish County located in the planning area is expected to increase at approximately 4.5% per year over the same 10-year period. This range of growth is typical of developing areas at the fringe of the Seattle metropolitan area, and has typically resulted in an annual traffic growth rate of 4% to 6% on the major freeways and arterials in the region. However, more locally-oriented streets in growth areas show far larger increases when development takes place. If the industrially zoned land in the planning area is developed, the minor arterials and collectors in the immediate vicinity will experience far higher rates of annual growth. For example, this proposal will result in a 250% growth in traffic volume on NE 195th in the short term. To estimate annual traffic growth rates without industrial development, a 5% rate per year was used. Figure 14 shows PM peak traffic volumes on 1-405, NE 195th, 120th Avenue NE, and 112th Avenue NE in 1980. Figure 15 shows projected traffic volumes on these same arterials in 1985 without traffic generated from implementation of any phase of this proposal. The design capacities of these facilities can adequately accommodate 1985 traffic projections. . Trip Generation Trip generation rates as used in this study consist primarily of national average data supplemented with information from the Bothell 0 &: D Survey in the case of office and industrial park use. Table XV lists the various vehicle trip generation rates used in this study for the proposal as well as for five alternatives. Trip generation rates for both office and industrial park uses are based upon vehicle trips per employee rather than by gross floor area because trip rates per employee are more accurate. The correlation of vehicle trips to the number of office and industrial employees is very high. The 0 &: D Survey showed that the number of office park employees per square foot, in suburban King County analogous to those of the proposal, number about one per 490 square feet whereas one employee per 250 square feet is normally used as a planning average. On - - - II:iii - - - - TABLE XV TRIP GENERATION - - - - - - - - .. - - Vehicle Trios 7-8 AM - 5~~ In Out Tn' OUt Daify Generation Rates 7-8 AM - 5-6 PM In Out in Out Daily GFA TNumber In Of SQ. Ft. Employee Use 300 228 515; - I 280 57 132 469 180 71 119 370 200 286 ill 961 9,980 2,378 5,465 17 1.5* .32** .39** o o 1.4* 0.08* 0.10** 0.9* 0.10** 0.09* * 1.0* 0.40* 0.36** 49.9* 3.33** 4.14** NA 714 ,320 200,000 350,000 990,000 1, Commercial Office Industrial Total Proposal (Full Development) ,043 250 68 151 469 233 17 39 289 150 21 35 206 166 85 139 390 ,823 I. 5* 8,292 0.32**1 706 0.39** 1,602 10,600 1.4* 0.08** 0.10** 0.9* 0.10** 0.09** 1.0* 0.40** 0.36* * 49.9* 3.33** 4.14** NA 212 387 540,000 166,174 103,666 290,198 Commercial Office 1ndustr ia1 Proposal (Initial Development) 174 122 252 - 548 152 30 65 247 98 38 58 194 109 152 232 493 6,578 1,265 2,675 10,518 .6* 32** 39** o o 1.4* 0.08** 0.10** 0.9* 0.10** 0.09** 1.0* .40** .36** o o 60.4* 3.33** 4.14** NA 380 646 560,038 108,910 186,298 484,561 779,769 Tota Commercial Office Industrial Total I ternative A ..... '" 255 182 373 810 223 46 96 365 143 57 86 286 159 228 344 731 9,620 11895 3,958 15,473 1.6* 0.32** 0.39** 1.4* 0.08** 0.10** 0.9* 0.10** 0.09** .0* 40** 36** I . . o o 60.4* 3.33** 4.14** NA 569 956 159,272 278,610 717,255 155,137 Commercial Office Industrial Total Alternative 2 980 251 226 905 10,402 0.39** 0.10** 0.09** 0.36** 14** 4 513 40612 884 1, Industria Alternative 3 486 463 119 243 19,485 86* o. 0.82* * 0.2 43* o. 5* 34. NA 773 564, Commercial Alternative 4 1,264 961 32,494 trip generation rates for "Daily" given in trIps per thousand square * 2 0.92* 31. I * NA 830 044 vehicle Commercial *2-way (i.e. in and out together) (GFA). Alternative 5 gross floor area of feet per employee. * *Trip generation rates the basis of the survey, one employee per 490 square feet was used for this study. Table XV showing trip generation rates also shows office park trips expected using the standard one employee per 250 square feet. The number of light industrial employees per square foot used in this,study is one employee per 750 square feet, fairly close to the national averages reported by the Institute of Transportation Engineers. Another local study (Andover Industrial Park) conducted by Wilsey and Ham about five years ago showed that the mix of distribution, warehouse and manufacturing uses yielded a ratio of one employee per 827 square feet. The use of one employee per 750 square feet for this study appears reasonable. . Trip Distribution The 0 &: D Survey, as described on page 66, was used to project the likely travel routes of the vehicle trips for each use. Projections were made for each of the three proposed uses because the geographic distribution patterns of each are significantly different. The separate projections were then added together for total vehicle volume estimates for both average weekday and afternoon peak traffic. . Estimated Traffic Operating Characteristics "Level of Service" is a term used to describe the quality of flow along traffic routes and at intersections. Level of Service "A" represents operation at less than 70% of theoretical design capacity. Level "B" represents operation at 70-77% of theoretical capacity; level "C", 77-85%; "D", 85-92% of capacity; and "E" represents flows exceeding 92% of theoretical capacity. Level "F" is undefined in percentage terms, but represents stop-and-go conditions with extreme traffic delays. Flows at full capacity in the peak hour (Level of Service "E") means that a line of cars exists during the entire hour for at least two approaches to an intersection. The number of drivers desiring to get through the intersection in the peak hour is called "traffic demand." If demand exceeds capacity, obviously, severe traffic congestion results with related delays (Level of Service "F"). Some drivers will seek alternate routes to avoid this congestion. Traffic impacts of the full project would not occur initially. Due to the soils of the site (see SOILS Section), the proposed sequence of earthwork for the project would result in the development of the parcels along the western border of the site first by I 982 (see Site Plan, Figure 2). Traffic projections estimated for 1982 are shown in Figure 16. With minor improvements to intersections (Channelization and turn arrows), the initial development will not adversely impact traffic in the immediate area. Development would cause the northbound off-ramp intersection with 195th Street to operate at 85% to 92 % of full capacity by 1982. 76 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I With full development of the project by 1985, the northbound 1-405 off-ramp and the intersection of NE 195th Street would be operating at level of service "F", with a "demand" 25% over capacity at PM peaks. The southbound off-ramp at NE 195th would also be operating at level of service "F", with traffic "demand" 105% of capacity. The 112th Avenue NE and NE 195th Street intersection can accommodate 1985 traffic volumes, including traffic generated by full development of the proposal. Figure 17 shows the 1985 traffic distribution. The I-405/NE 195th Street interchange can adequately accommodate non-project- related 1985 PM peak traffic estimates. When development is complete, without mitigating measures the 1-405/NE 195th Street interchange would be unable to handle traffic levels forecasted from this project and from projected traffic level increases from other sources without considerable conges- tion. Delays to individual drivers could amount to 10 minutes or more. More likely, many would seek alternative routes to reach 1-405 northbound via SE 228th Street and SR 527 in Snohomish County, and to reach SR 522 and 1-405 southbound via the 132nd Avenue NE/Woodinville Interchange on SR 522, just east of 1-405. It is not possible to forecast how many drivers will divert to alternate routes to escape congestion. It should be noted that the alternate routes also have severe congestion potential. Southeast 228th Street in Snohomish County, as it nears SR 527 would also become congested if traffic were to divert from the 1-405/NE 195th Street interchange. The interchange of SR 522 and 132nd Avenue NE is also heavily loaded during peak hours. Traffic from the proposed development, diverting to the 132nd/SR 522 interchange, would also cause severe traffic congestion at that interchange. The area streets leading to these alternate interchanges are two-lane, rural roads that cannot safely accommodate traffic diverted from the 1-405/NE 195th interchange. Miti~atin~ Measures The sponsor's anticipated sequence of development would allow mitigation of the traffic impacts at NE 195th Street and the northbound off-ramp of 1-405. The proposed sequence of project development allows time for further consideration of possible mitigating methods and procedures to deal with area traffic increases. With minor .improvements to intersections (channelization and turn arrows), development through 1982 will not adversely impact traffic in the immediate area. Widening of 195th and the freeway overpass and signal improvements along NE 195th Street would be required prior to completion of the ultimate project. 78 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The City has recently funded a city-wide transportation study. Because of planned business growth in this area, the master traffic study should place particular emphasis on the North Creek Valley. The purpose of such a study and plan should be: (1) to detail an adequate arterial and road access system; (2) to identify needed capital improvements; and (3) to set conditions for development of the site and the valley floor beyond 1982. Included in the plan should be strategies (e.g. local improvement district assessments) for implementation of needed capital improvements and for accommodat- ing the anticipated growth in the planning area both upland residential and valley floor mixed-use. The sponsor of the present proposal could be required to fund a fair portion of the study. Widening and signalization improvements on NE 195th could allow complete develop- ment of the entire 140-acre site by 1985. Traffic could operate at or better than Level of Service "B" (70-77% of full capacity) with these types of improvements. However, determination of the specific mitigating measures for this project at completion and other development can only be identified after a master traffic plan is prepared and adopted. If adequate improvements are made adjacent to the site to provide convenient access to 1-405, no significant volumes of traffic will divert to other local arterials. The City could set limits on initial development and establish a traffic monitoring program to verify impacts. PUBLIC SERVICES FIRE Existin~ Conditions Fire protection for the site is currently provided by the City of Bothell Fire Department. The station, located at IOn6 Beardslee Boulevard in Bothell, houses four pumper trucks. Twelve full-time employees are based at the station. The City of Bothell also provides fire protection to three other districts currently under contract: King County Fire District No. 42 in Woodinville and Snohomish County Fire District Nos. 9 and 10. King County Fire District No. 42 has a station at 126th Avenue NE and NE 173rd Street in Woodinville with one pumper. Snohomish County Fire District No.9 has a station under construction at 228th Avenue NE and 4th Street SW, and Snohomish County Fire District No. 10 currently has no station. 80 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The City of Bothell contributes $298,707 to fire protection per year. On a per household basis, this costs approximately $103. The two homes on the site would, therefore, require about $206 annually in public expenditure for fire protection. The city-wide insurance rating is "4" on a scale of "1" (Best) to "10" (unprotected). No pipes or hydrants exist on or near the site to provide fire protection. Environmental Impact The proposed project would create significant additional demands for fire protection on the City of Bothell Fire Department, which at present could not adequately serve the site. The City does not presently have a ladder truck to serve high-rise buildings. Fire departments generally report that developments of the type proposed generate more tax revenues than they demand in fire services. However, the demand could occur before tax revenues generated by the project become available. A full discussion of tax revenues and their application to public services is presented in Appendix C. Miti~atin~ Measures All structures would be equipped with required fire detection and suppression devices to reduce the incidence and severity of fires. Recommended measures from the fire department would be incorporated into the design of the site and the individual structures to assure quick access of fire equipment and personnel responding to all types of calls. Hydrant locations and fire flow design would be subject fo fire department approval. Fire lanes would be designed into the site to provide easy movement of equipment to all parts of the complex. Turning radii, overhead clearance and deck strength would accommodate all types of equipment. Sprinkler systems would reduce the impact this proposal would have on the City of Bothell Fire Department. POLICE Existin~ Conditions The site is under the jurisdiction of the City of Bothell Police Department. At present, the police force is undermanned by two positions, but two officers are in training and are expected to be productive in the next 6 to 10 months. It is anticipated that the department will be near 1.9 officers per 1000 population by early 1981. The current national average is 1.85 officers per 1000 population. Police response time is 3 to 4 minutes to any point within the city limits. Physical plant conditions are currently excellent and will accommodate future growth for the next 8 years. 81 Environmental Impact The proposed development would create additional demands for police services. Increases in vehicular traffic will also create additional demands upon traffic control personnel. Although this proposed development would not contribute especially to anti- social behavior, certain crime-related activities, including auto theft, shoplifting, check and credit card fraud and possibly robbery and burglary, could be expected to occur. These activities should be no greater than those experienced in similar centers. A similar tax revenue/service situation exists as in the discussion of fire service impacts. Miti~atin~ Measures Approved doors and locking devices would be installed throughout the development. Any recommendations from the police department on measures to enhance the security and safety of people, buildings and autos would be incorporated into the design phases. Building and parking design and lighting would serve as burglary prevention measures and to aid police patrols. Additional tax revenue generated by the site development would help offset the cost of any additional police personnel required to patrol and provide security to the site. SCHOOLS Existin~ Conditions The property is included in the Northshore School District No. 417. No schools exist on the property, but primary and secondary schools lie nearby. Those which might serve any residents of the site are: Woodin Elementary, with an enrollment of 580 in April 1980, Canyon Park Junior High with 715 students, and Bothell High School with an enrollment of 1,367. By the time the project is completed, the new Woodin vi lie High School will be open. School officials project enrollments of 13,600 in 1980 and 15,200 in 1984. During the 1979-80 school year, the Northshore School District spent $22,915,663. Serving 22,000 households, this averages $1,302 per housing unit, or $2,406 for the site as it exists. Environmental Impact The proposed site development is not expected to have a significant impact on schools in the area since the proposal is not expected to cause a substantial shift in population. Increased demands on upland housing could have a long-term spreading effect on the additional number of students attending any particular school within the North Creek Planning Area. As can be seen in the average trip lengths of employees at similar employment centers (see TRANSPORTATION AND CIRCULATION), the employees will be distributed over a rather wide area and would not significantly impact one school or distr ict. 82 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Miti~atin~ Measures The expenses attributable to possible increases in school enrollment resulting from development of this site would be met by additional tax revenues paid by occupying businesses. PARKS Existin~ Conditions No parks are within or directly adjacent to the site. Park and recreation facilities located in King County include the Sammamish River Trail, Northshore Pool and Recreational Facility, The Tolt Pipeline Trail, East Norway Hill Playing Fields and Gold Creek Park. The City of Bothell park system includes the park at Bothell Landing on the Sammamish (2.5 acres), Blyth Park (I1.5 acres), Memorial Park (0.5 acres), Royal Oaks Park (2 acres), Conifer View Park 0.5 acres), and William Penn Park (2.75 acres). In addition, over 33 acres on the Sammamish River and 25 acres of land owned by King County contiguous to Blyth Park are available for passive-use development. Existing demands on parks in the Bothell city park system has necessitated plans for expansion and remodeling of several park facilities. Environmental Impact The proposed type of development is not expected to directly impact existing park and recreation facilities because the project is not expected to cause any significant shifts in population. Long-term demands for upland housing which is expected to result from development of the valley floor would impact current recreational facilities. Miti~ating Measures The North Creek Valley Comprehensive Plan sets forth several policies for recreational and open space uses. The proposed site plan (Figure 2) shows the proposed relocation of North Creek into a meandering pattern and provides nearly 30 acres of greenbelt/storm water retention areas to be planted primarily in native vegetation. Trails along the creek would be linked to any network in the area, and bridges crossing the creek would facilitate public use. Joint use of parking lots would allow recreational users off-hour use of developed parking. The provisions for public use would mitigate developmental impacts on the site and would alleviate the strain on existing city and county recreational facilities. 83 MAINTENANCE Maintenance of the buildings, facilities and grounds within the site boundaries would be the responsibility of the owner(s). Private utilities would maintain their on and off-site facilities. Municipal utilities would be maintained by the municipality. Maintenance costs fo~ additional and improved roadways would result from site development. The proposal would generate property revenues. A portion of the property taxes would be allocated for repair and maintenance of roadways. The maintenance allocation of the property taxes generated by the proposal should cover any additional maintenance resulting from the development. LIBRARIES The nearest library is the Bothell Library at 9654 NE 182nd Street. This facility is a branch of the King County Library system. The Kenmore and Kingsgate branches are within reasonable driving distance, and King County also provides a mobile outreach library service to the area. The North Creek Library at SE 18323 Bothell/Everett Highway is a nearby branch of the Snohomish County Library. The King County Public Library had an annual operating budget of $6.6 million. This figure averages to about $25 per housing unit in King County outside of Seattle. The proposed development would have little or no significant impact on existing libraries. MEDICAL FACILITIES Evergreen Hospital is the nearest medical facility, approximately four miles to the south. It has 76 beds and emergency facilities. Minor increases in demand for medical services would be expected to occur as a result of accidents on the project site. This increase would be the same at alternative sites of comparable size. ENERGY Existin~ Conditions There is presently no significant energy consumption or production on the site. Local residents utilize energy to travel greater distances to places of employment and to competitive services at other sites. 84 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I '. Environmental Impact An indication of the heating and cooling needs for the project are shown in Table XVI. The heating requirements are much greater than the cooling requirements. The average temperature must be increased by 250F per day during January to maintain a design temperature of 650F. The average summer temperature must be reduced about 5~ daily to attain the 60~ cooling requirement. The completed project would use an estimated 267 billion BTU's or 78,230,000 KWH annually for heating, lighting and equipment operation. These impacts are commensurate with commercial developments of this size and scope. Building and sitework energy costs would require an estimated 1.33 trillion BTU's for construction and site development. The rate of use of motor fuel for public and private transportation to and from the site is largely dependent upon driving distances from residential areas to this facility. The concentration of potentially 3,550 workers upon full development would provide sub stantial opportunities for carpooling and could lead to expansion of transit service to the area. These factors, along with the opportunity of living within close proximity to the site could tend to reduce fuel expenditures by site employees and other employees in the vicinity. Miti~atin~ Measures The proposal will incorporate the most current design concepts and materials to assure energy efficiency. Building design and construction would comply with the Washington State Energy Code. To optimize thermal efficiency, the heating and cooling requirements of the buildings would be analyzed by computer modeling techniques. Building configuration, insulation thickness and utilization of skylights would be employed to reduce operating expenses. Other energy-saving measures that could be used include: o compact buildings which result in the lowest wall to floor ratio; o roof and ceiling heights kept to a minimum thereby reducing building volume; o roof insulation to reduce heat loss and solar gain; o energy management systems to limit heating and electrical demand by reducing loads on a priority basis; o directional skylights to provide natural light in appropriate areas, thereby reducing artificial lighting requirements during daylight hours; o artificial lighting utilizing low energy systems to prove more light for a ~iven amount of energy; o utilization of locally produced building materials wherever practicable; o jointly used parking areas to reduce the number of lights required in the parking areas without sacrificing safety requirements; o continual maintenance of heating, ventilating, air conditioning and lighting systems to ensure efficient operation. o passive or active solar systems; and o pedestrian/bicycle linkage to adjacent residential areas to encourage non- motorized commuting. 85 UTILITIES ELECTRICITY Existin~ Conditions Puget Sound Power and Light supplies energy to the site through overhead lines. Power is obtained from two coal-fired generators in Montana, hydro-electrical plants and BPA. Puget Power has two coal fire plants and one nuclear facility proposed for future construction. Public opposition is delaying plans to f,acilitate projected population increases within proximity of the site. Electrical power demand is growing faster than the utilities' ability to increase supply. TABLE XVI HEA TING AND COOLING DEGREE DA YS* FOR SEATTLE Month J A M J A SON Annua Heating Degree Days 738 599 577 396 242 117 50 47 129 329 543 657 5524 (650F Base) Cooling Degree Days (600F Base) 3 28 68 164 158 65 8 494 *Heating degree days are largely used for determining the heating requirements and size of heating equipment that will be needed for a particular location. Heating degree days are determined by subtracting the mean temperature of the day from 65. For example, if the maximum temperature for a particular day was 600 and the minimum was 340, the mean would be one half their sum or 47. Subtracting this from 65 we obtain 18 degree days for that day. If the daily mean is greater than 65, the number of degree days is 0 - there are no negative degree days. Cooling degree days are computed in exactly the same manner. In computing cooling degree days the base being considered is subtracted from the mean temperature. When the mean ,temperature for a day is lesS than the base, the cooling degree days is O. There are no negative values. Environmental Impact Electricity would be required to satisfy the majority of power requirements and must be provided by Puget Sound Power and Light. Energy-efficient design would minimize the use of electricity. Major site improvements would be required to adequately service the site, including transformers, transformer pads and underground feeders. 86 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The development would be designed to be energy-efficient by minimizing the use of electricity and other forms of energy. (See ENERGY section for details). Buildings could be heated by natural gas to relieve demand for electrical service. NATURAL GAS Existin~ Conditions There is no gas service currently, but Washington Natural Gas could serve the site through a 4-inch main in NE 195th Street under the freeway. Approximately 3,600 residential homes are currently being serviced by Washington Natural Gas in the HolJy Hills area. Washington Natural Gas indicates there would be no problem servicing the site via this 4-inch unpressurized main. Environmental Impact Natural gas is expected to be used for heating and restaurant/cooking demands. It is not anticipated that full development would significantly impact the ability of Washington Natural Gas to satisfy current and projected demands. Miti~atin~ Measures See ENERGY section. COMM UNICA TIONS Existin~ Conditions The project site lies in the General Telephone service area. The BothelJ branch at NE 228th west of 27th Street NE, handles calls in the area north of Bothell. Environmental Impact The BothelJ branch was designed to facilitate expansion northward from the city such as proposed. All on-site lines would be underground. The telephone company could supply service to this site at no more cost than would be incurred in supplying the same demand at alternative sites. WATER Existin~ Conditions The project lies within the service area of the City of Bothell, but the two homes now on the site use well water. The closest mains are on the west side of the freeway in Beardslee Boulevard and Ross Road. A casing runs under 1-405 north of the interchange. The City of BothelJ purchases water from the City of Seattle. Adequate supply is available to the City. 87 88 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Environmental Impact Domestic water consumption is minimal for a development of this nature. There would be a slight increase in domestic use of water due to the number of offices and commercial/retail stores. An estimated 72,000 cubic feet of water per acre of development would be needed each year to serve the site. City fire marshall approval would be required upon finalization of site and building plans. New water lines would be brought into the site from the east at the developer's expense and the developer would assist the local water district in construCting a reservoir facility, per City of Bothell requirements. SEWERS Existin~ Conditions The site is not currently served by sewer; the existing structures are served by septic tanks. The North Creek sewer trunk line runs north and south across the site. It is a 24-inch pipe now operating at about 70% capacity. The line is within the corporate city limits of the City of BothelJ, but is owned by the Alderwood Water District and cannot be used to service the site. The nearest city mains are in Ross Road and Beardslee Boulevard. A 60-inch METRO trunk line runs parallel to NE 185th Street, transporting sewage to the Metro treatment plant. Environmental Impact Developments of the size and type proposed do not generate relatively large amounts of sewage. The increases in sanitary wastes would be within the capacity of the existing system. Sewer lines from the project would be connected with the Metro trunk line south of the site at the developers' expense. STORM WATER Existin~ Conditions The site is currently not served by storm sewer. Existing drainage ditches channel storm water runoff into North Creek or to a system of open ditches along the roadway. Environmental Impact Impervious surfaces would cover approximately 60 percent of the site upon project completion. Thus, surface water runoff would substantially increase compared to the natural rate without development. During construction periods when the soil would be exposed to storm water, sediment levels would increase. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Mitigating Measures An on-site surface storm water retention system and storm sewers would be utilized to handle increased storm water runoff resulting from increased impervious coverage. Addition of the retention system to accommodate the increase in impervious surface coverage is expected to maintain existing storm water discharge rates. Storm water runoff would be handled by on-site storm sewers which channel the runoff into a retention pond where it is recharged into the soil and/or released via an existing ditch into the Sammamish River. Catch basins for sediment would prohibit impurities from entering the pond. Any water which should happen to overflow the rechanneled banks of North Creek would not re-enter North Creek but would either be recharged into the soil or enter the storm sewer system. SOLID WASTE Solid waste generated on the site is collected by the Sno-King Garbage Company, a private commercial hauler. Refuse is brought to the King County disposal sites in Woodinville or Rose Hill. Upon finalization of site plans, consultation between the disposal company and the project designers would ensure an efficient solid waste disposal system. All on-site disposal facilities would be located and architecturally screened to reduce visual impacts. HUMAN HEALTH No conditions would be created by the proposed development that would become health hazards to the building occupants or to the surrounding population. All buildings would be designed in accordance with applicable building codes and health requirements prior to operation. Any proposed food establishments would be required to adhere to all health standards in the maintenance and operation of the business. AESTHETICS Existing Conditions The site is a broad, flat valley floor. It still has the general appearance of a farm due to open fields, large barns, and the continuing agricultural use of adjacent properties (see following Figure 18 and cover photo). The barns are attractive, older, wooden structures and add visual interest to the site. Bounded on the sides by steep, wooded valley walls, the valley is highly visible from the surrounding hillsides where roadways have resulted in the removal of trees. Many homes in the area also have views of the valley. The surrounding hillsides frame most such views and provide visual contrast resulting in pastoral and attractive views. 89 On a daily basis, the site is viewed most often by people in cars on 1-405 which forms the western boundary of the site at the base of the valley wall. The site is also visible from SR 522 to the south. The site comprises a large area of undeveloped land. Surrounding development is predominantly single family residences sited on the wooded hillsides to the east and west of the proposed development, and farm buildings located to the north in Snohomish County. Environmental Impact The proposal would substantially alter the existing visual character of the site. The 105 acres of commercial/retail, office and light industrial buildings and parking areas would be visible from the surrounding hillsides, producing the appearance of a large activity center. From the adjacent streets and highways, the low profile buildings would appear similar to other nearby commercial centers. The visual impact of the proposal is illustrated in Figure 19. Substantial open, green areas would remain within the proposed development. Mitigating Measures Altering the pattern of North Creek into a more natural meandering configuration and providing for open space in the interior of the site along the creek as proposed would improve the appearance of the project. A variety of views of the creek and adjacent open spaces would be provided from the commercial/retail and office buildings. Earth berms, walls, fences and appropriate landscaping materials would be provided to achieve a high aesthetic quality, to soften the visual impact of the freeway and to buffer freeway noise levels. The interior boulevard and the exterior perimeter of the site along 1-405, 195th Street and 120th Avenue would be landscaped. Buildings would be designed individually to avoid any repetitious appearance. Building materials and colors would be compatible with the natural surroundings and pastoral valley setting. Private condition~, covenants, and restrictions would ensure high quality architecture by establishing design standards and a private architectural review board. Design standards include but are not limited to views and vistas, vehicular and pedestrian flows, energy conservation through facility design, highlighted visitor entrance and parking areas, decorative pedestrian walkways, accent landscaping and lighting, dyna!Tlic building and roof forms, striking window patterns and light and shadow patterns. 90 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . '. -. I -. I I I I I I I I I I Although different in scale and character from surrounding development, the proposal is in conformance with the amended Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance and would not be aesthetically incompatible with any nearby activities. No significant views would be obstructed and no offensive views would be created. RECREATION Existing Conditions As private property, the site currently offers no recreational opportunities. Environmental Impact The proposed development would have a strong, positive impact on recreational opportunities. The original meandering pattern of North Creek would be restored. Stream buffers and greenbelt areas would comprise a 28-acre area of open space, accessible and usable by the public. A pedestrian trail system with creek crossings at strategic locations would augment the proposed North Creek Trail network. This proposed pedestrian path would allow public access to the open space flood plain left in native vegetation. The sponsor would construct two exercise/jogging trails, a seasonal ice-skating rink and provide a community clubhouse for public use. Jointly used parking areas are also proposed to allow and encourage recreational users to utilize the opportunities provided. Careful consideration is being given to the development of a complete non-motor vehicle traffic network which does not currently exist. ARCHAEOLOGICAL/HISTORICAL RESOURCES Existing Conditions An archaeological reconnaissance strategy was developed to determine general land use history and field characteristics of the study area. This strategy included subsurface soil sampling, a literature and records search, interviews with current residents of the property and a field examination of all bare ground on the site. Subsurface reconnaissance of the central portions of the project area revealed soil . types characteristic of stream bottoms. Since these areas were seasonally saturated and probably flooded prior to the lowering of Lake Washington in 1916, it is unlikely that cultural resources existed within these formerly swampy areas. Areas more likely to contain artifacts are located along the western border of the project and a portion of the northeast margin. Subsurface sampling in these areas 9S consisted of coring to a depth of four feet at a 100-foot grid interval. Recent prehistoric use of the area most likely consisted of sporadic visits for hunting and gathering purposes. Original inhabitants were members of the Duwamish tribe. No village or special features have been located within the project area, and no evidence of prehistor ic use or occupation was uncovered in literature search or soil sampling. The 1870 Government Land Office Plat Map for the Bothell area indicates few settlers had penetrated this portion of the puget Sound basin. Since the 1870's, the local flora has been extensively modified by logging and agricultur~ activities. The North Creek Valley provided many of the cedar logs used by the large mills in Bothell. The study area was homesteaded until19JJ when it was conveyed to Bothell Dairy Farms. In approximately 1897 a flume to carry logs was built from the Sammamish River through the site and several miles to the north. About this time, the creek was relocated for the first time. From 1929 to 1933, a portion of the property was used as a golf course. The land was plowed up when this venture failed and has been truck farmed from the early 1940's to 1973 by the Vitulli family and the current tenant, Dan Davies. North Creek was relocated to facilitate farming in the 1930's and again in the late 1960's. Its original course is undeterminable and the extent of the land disturbance unknown. Other modifications in the vicinity include changes to the Sammamish River channel, the lowering of Lake Washington in 1916 and the construction of Interstate 405. Four residences (two unoccupied), a greenhouse, a large storage shed, a barn and at least seven outbuildings are presently located on the land parcel. The 1-405 construc- tion resulted in the demolition of one structure and the relocation of several others, including Mr. Davies' residence. The present Davies residence was constructed between 1929 and 1930 and once served as the "clubhouse" for the golf course. It is noted that this structure represents a combination of styles and could contribute to the understanding of historic design processes. The rest of the standing structures are less than 50 years old, not representative of a particular style and in poor condition. None have been listed by the King County Office of Historical Preservation and do not merit listing on the Washington Inventory of Historic Places or the National Register of Historic Places. Only 0.04% of the study area was bare ground that permitted archaeological reconnais- sance. Although groundwater and high summer vegetation made field examination 96 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . I -. . '. I . . I I . . I I I difficult, much of the parcel was investigated on foot to locate any above ground archaeological features. A single scatter of historical artifacts was found in the vicinity of the greenhouse located in the southwest portion. This scatter is tentatively identified as fragments of household ceramic utensils and glassware dated 1900 to 1920 from the Dominic Vitulli household. Mr. Davies indicated that he had walked and plowed the entire property in conjunction with his truck farming activities and has never discovered any historic or prehistoric artifacts nor knew of any Native American materials collected from the immediate vicinity. Environmental Impact and Mitigating Measures On the basis of the evidence presently available, the proposed development would have no effect on archaeological or historical resources. To be certain that development of the site would not result in the loss of any undiscovered archaeological resources, the archaeological subconsultant recommended that they be retained to be present during site grading. If archaeological resources are discovered during excavation, further disturbance in the immediate area would be halted until the significance of the resources can be determined. The Washington State Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation would be notified of any findings. The sponsor intends to preserve the present Davies' house (former golf clubhouse) as a community clubhouse. 97 I I I I I I -. I -. I I I I I I I I I I Elements of the Economic Environment ECONOMIC AND PO PULA TION TRENDS The Puget Sound area is the industrial heartland of Washington State. The economy is centered around transportation equipment, lumber and wood products, wholesale and retail trades, services and the shipping industry. As of 1978, manufacturing employ- ment comprised 21% of total civilian non-agricultural wage and salary employment in the Seattle-Everett SMSA. Wholesale and retail trades made up 25%, service and governmental sectors made up 19% and 16% respectively. Population in the Seattle-Everett SMSA between 1970 and 1979 represents the economic downturn at the beginning of the decade. During this period, growth showed only a 0.8% or 12,400 per annum increase, down from a figure of 2.7% per annum between 1950 and 1970. Population growth in the 1980's is anticipated to be 1.9% per year in King County, 2.4% per year in Snohomish County, and an average of 2.0% per year in Seattle-E verett SMSA. The Bothell area has grown significantly in the last five years. Annexation and development plus a healthy regional economy induced population to grow from 5,885 in 1975 to 7,217 in 1979, while at the same time the assessed valuation in the city grew from $62.7 million to $102.2 million. INDUSTRIAL USE A market study conducted by Realesearch for the sponsor (the Koll Company) addressed the market demand for light industrial development on the site. Trends in Land Sales and Absorption Industr ial land sales and land absorption levels are fairly accurate indicators of market activity and demand. In the greater Seattle market, development has been escalating during the last three years so that sales and absorption statistics give a trend of activity in the area. Land absorption in anyone year is defined as the total amount of land receiving new building permit approvals during the year and would represent land developed with buildings an~ not land sales. Analysis of annual absorption of industrial land in King County and on the eastside of Lake Washington, and from annual absorption rates experienced by established industrial parks, results in an estimated absorption at the proposed Koll development of approximately 30 acres (net) per year. The estimated 30 99 acres (net) per year absorption at the subject site would comprise approximately 35% of the projected demand for competitive developments on the eastside of Lake Washing- ton. Assuming that 75% efficiency of land is achieved, the 105 acres of net developable land would be absorbed in approximately 3.5 years if the entire site were developed in light industr ial use. COMMERCIAL/RETAIL USE Approximately 200,000 square feet of commercial/retail floor space is proposed. Amounts developed will be dependent on market demands at the time of sale or lease. The amount of space considered in the proposal would accommodate a shopping mall, similar to Lake Forest Park in size. For comparison, the recently completed Canyon Park Center north of Bothell has approximately 100,000 square feet of commercial/ retail space. In order to analyze the market potential, the following items must be considered: 1) the local transportation system, 2) local population patterns, and 3) current shopping opportunities and shopping patterns of the local residents. The site is served directly by 1-405. It is accessible to residential areas to the east via 120th Avenue NE, and to downtown Bothell via Beardslee Blvd. and Ross Road. Interstate 405 is the major commuter link for the local residents to employment centers in Everett, Bellevue and Seattle. Since intensive residential development is rapidly occurring throughout the area, many of the local residents must travel past the site to reach shopping destinations in Bothell. Contacts with prospective commercial tenants indicate general agreement in projecting a high demand for the shopping services proposed for the site. Competing Facilities Supermarkets generally rely on a market area within a radius of one mile or less, while super drug stores draw from a market area with a radius of five miles. There are three supermarkets and four drug stores approximately one mile west of the site in downtown Bothell. There are no supermarkets within a mile to the east, north or south. A new super drug has recently been opened at Canyon Park Center approximately one and one half miles northwest of the site. An inventory of existing Bothell businesses indicated that there is presently 172,339 square feet of retail shopping space. To assess the potential economic impacts to existing downtown Bothell businesses, an economic subconsultant was contacted (Bill Mundy &, Associates). Their analysis concluded that: 100 I I I I I I I I I I I I I- I I I I I- I I I I I I I '. I I I I I I I I I I I I 1. Bothell is presently losing significant sales volume to other shopping areas due to first, an inadequate mix of retail shops, and second, inadequate floor area or sales area (which therefore, restricts inventory and therefore, choice) in many existing shops. The analysis indicated another 105,000 square feet of,sales area could be supported in 1981, increasing to 111,000 by 1983, in downtown Bothell. Additional evidence to support this contention is based on the success that the Bothell Landing has had (which, except for two small shops has been fully absorbed) and the Canyon Park Center has had (which opened in the spring of 1980 and is fully absorbed except for three small spaces with some 3,700 square feet of rentable area). 2. Assuming that present Bothell stores retain an equivalent or superior competi- tive character, vis-a-vie the proposed center including product line and quality, product pricing, and promotion, the North Creek Center, as presently proposed, will not have a significant effect on sales volumes of downtown Bothell stores. First, the trade area analysis clearly showed that Bothell's trade area is relatively compact and bounded on the east by the 1-405 freeway. It is highly likely that the freeway will also form a western boundary for the proposed center, with the primary trade area extending in a northeasterly direction. Second, most of downtown Bothell's shoppers live quite close to Bothell (within 1 to 1l, miles from the city center). It is easily accessible, thereby causing the compact trade area character. OFFICE USE The proposed project includes 350,000 square feet of office space. In order to assess the impact on King County, of the provision of office space and assuming 300,000 square feet, forecasts for employment increases from 1980-1990 were utilized as the basis for projections of office space demand. A total of 33,000 jobs requiring office space (between 1980-1990) indicates a need for approximately 8.25 million square feet of office space in King County. This projection does not, however, include an allowance for replacement, nor a factor for higher space requirements. The actual demand may total one million square feet per year, or ten million square feet over the 1980-1990 time period. A large portion of this demand, approximately 40%, would be allocated to the Seattle CBD, with 30% to Bellevue, and the remaining 30% to the Sea-Tac airport, Tukwila and 101 other portions of King County. The proposed project accounts for 3.6% of the county's total ten-year demand. TAX REVENUES Direct income to the public sector would consist primarily of property taxes and business and operation taxes. The assessed value of the tract as industrial land is estimated to be $18 million. It may be assumed that the value of the land added to the costs of improvements ($69,398,000 estimated for construction and site improvements) gives an indication of the assessed value of the proposed development. This would total an approximate value of $87,398,000 for the completed proposal. The millage rate for property taxes was 19.87 per thousand based on the average of the past three years. However, the 1981 rates are lower as shown in Table XVII. The breakdown of property taxes on an approximate $87 million assessed value is shown in Table XVII. TABLE XVD PROJECTED PROPERTY TAXES (1981 Estimated Rates) Real Estate Tax School District City of Bothell (regular and excess) Other Total Millage/Thousand 2.79 2.29 Total $ 243,840 200,141 443,108 $ 887,089 5.07 10.15 The business and operations taxes generated by the proposed business park cannot be accurately projected without knowing the tenants and type of businesses. Likewise, sales tax revenues cannot be projected without knowing the type of goods sold. Assuming that 200,000 square feet of proposed retail space is developed, sales tax revenues would total approximately $100,000. The estimated annual income to the City of Bothell from utilities taxes generated by the project is $415,000 as shown in Table XVIII. 102 . I . I I I I I I I I- I I- I I- I I I I TABLE xvm PROJECTED UTII.ITY TAXES (8% of base billing returned to BotheU) Base Annual Billin 3,125,000 $1,848,000 $ 100,000 $ 71 , 000 35 000 5,179,000 Bothell Tax 250,000 $148,000 $ 8,000 $ 6,000 $ 3,000 $415,000 In addition to the direct tax income, the water and sewer utilities may realize some benefits from economics of scale due to the substantial increase in annual operating budgets. The indirect impact of additional income and employment in the area may have a significant impact on the private sector of the local community. These indirect impacts are not readily quantifiable and, as such, are not calculated as part of this analysis. EMPLOYMENT The City of Bothell is primarily a suburban community whose residents commute to other areas for work each day. Within Census Tract 218 in 1976, PSCOG estimates that 331 were employed in retail trades, 243 in services, 56 in manufacturing, 27 in wholesaling, transportation, communication and utilities, and 631 in government and education. The employment impact on the City of Bothell has been evaluated in terms of both income and employment. As a basis for evaluating those impacts, the following cost estimate was developed: Type of Construction Commercial/Retail - 200,000 s.f. @ $35/s.f. Office - 350,000 s.f. cq $70/s.f. Industrial - 990,000 s.f. @ $35/s.f. Site Improvements cq $1.50/s.f. TOTAL Construction Cost $ 7,000,000 24,500,000 34,650,000 3,248.000 $69,398,000 103 The percentage of total construction cost allocated for labor is estimated at 33%, or approximately $22,901,340. This would equal 1,832,107 man-hours @ $12.50/hour or 909 man-years of employment as shown in Table XIX. TABLE XIX SHORT-TERM EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME IMPACTS Approximate Total Construction Cost Payroll Man-Hours @ $12.50/hr Full Time Employment $69,398,000 22,901,340 1,832,000 909 Man-Years Total on-site employment upon full development would be approximately 3,550 persons. The commercial/retail uses would provide about 500 jobs, based on one employee per 400 square feet of space. The proposed offices would employ about 1,400 persons at one per 250 square feet. The light industrial uses would provide another 1,650 jobs. Additional employment opportunities may be provided in management, maintenance, service and auxiliary operations of the proposal. DEVELOPER'S FAIR SHARE The proposed development and increased traffic would result in increased costs to the City of Bothell for public service improvements such as police and fire protection, transportation and circulation improvements, street maintenance, sewer and water, schools and other governmental services as discussed below. Costs of providing essential services are primarily financed from city revenues previously discussed. The developer will be required to finance his fair share of improvement to utility systems and streets needed to serve the project. These improvemf'nts include a storm sewer system for the site, on and off-site improvements to the water system, construction of a connector to the Metro sanitary sewer trunk line, construction of interior streets, and improvements to 120th Avenue NE, NE 195th Street and to the intersections with 1-405. The sponsor will fund a "fair share" of the city-wide transportation study. FISCAL IMPACTS OF PROVIDING SERVICES TO THE PROJECT An analysis of the estimated costs and revenues associated with the proposed development, was conducted to project the direct costs incurred by the City of Bothell, 104 I I I I I I I I I I I I I. I' I I I I I I I I I -I . 'I '. -I "1 I I I I I I I I I and the immediate revenues which would be generated by the commercial and industrial development of the subject property. Indirect impacts (such as those attributable to the effect of the proposal on residential development and related service needs and/or revenues) are not considered. Such secondary impacts are nearly impossible to predict, and separate from primary impacts. The costs and revenues examined in the analysis are expressed in 1981 dollars. The fiscal impacts of the proposal, therefore, are considered in terms of the costs and revenues that the facility would generate if it were completed and operating in 1981. A detailed discussion of the analysis is presented in Appendix C. In summary, the analysis indicates that the proposed development would have a positive annual net impact of $386,302. However, local service costs attributable to the project might initially exceed the revenues generated, due to the lag between the demand for services and collection of annual tax revenues. The evaluation of the immediate fiscal impact was beyond the scope of this analysis. Despite this limitation, and the other assumptions upon which the analysis was based (see Appendix C), the results are a useful means of quickly evaluating the service requirements of the anticipated development, and monitoring the costs of the proposed instant land use decision. The City of Bothell has no formula by which to allocate tax revenues to individual service categories. It is not possible, therefore, to compare revenues to costs for each service function. The analysis showed, however, that the total long run revenues generated by the proposal would exceed its total servicing costs. Finally, it is important to remember that the net surplus of $386,302 is expressed in purely financial terms. The analysis is not a substitute for the evaluation of non-fiscal or intangible costs and benefits, nor an analysis of cost effectiveness. 105 I I . . -. . '. 'I . . . . . I . I I . I Short-Term Environmental Uses vs. Long-Term Productivity (THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL SHORT-TERM USES OF MAN'S ENVIRONMENT ANO MAINTENANCE ANO ENHANCEMENT OF LONG-TERM PRODUCTIVITY) Implementation of the proposal would result in the transformation of the existing rural/semi-rural environment into an urban environment, foreclosing future use options and alternatives. This long-term foreclosure of options would be offset by short-term gains from the proposal, including additional tax revenues, additional employment opportunities, the availability of retail goods and services, and the preservation/ enhancement of the quality of North Creek as a fisheries resource. The site is presently open space and is not utilized for any large scale agricultural production. The proposal represents a long term resource commitment supporting human activity with a corresponding reduction in wildlife and vegetation habitats. Some plants and animals tolerant of human intrusion would, to some extent, replace existing vegetation and wildlife types. Short-term airborne pollutant levels would increase upon actual construction and occupancy of the buildings to be developed. Over the long term, however, pollutant concentrations in all areas may decrease as the implementation of federal vehicle exhaust emission legislation becomes effective. Noise levels would increase with development and traffic increases. This increase would be long term. Site development would increase storm water runoff and decrease ground water recharge. This effect would continue with the retention of impervious surface coverage. Even though the site is not currently being used as agricultural land, implementation of the proposal would indirectly pressure remaining agricultural lands within the area. Delaying implementation of the proposal until some future time would not produce any anticipated long-term environmental benefits. Delayed implementation would sub- stantially increase cost with similar impacts occuring whenever the project proceeded. Preserving the land in an undeveloped state without any economic return would eliminate resulting economic benefits (employment opportunities and tax revenues). Advantages of delaying development includes preservation of existing open space and elimination of adverse environmental impacts associated with development until some future time. 107 Irreversible or Irretrievable Commitments of Resources Natural resources, financial backing and manpower would be committed to the development and maintenance of this proposal. Natural resources would be expended in the form of materials to be utilized in construction and maintenance, in the generation of energy for heating, cooling, lighting, construction, repair, transportation and manufacture of materials. A commitment of public services would be made for fire and police protection, schools, parks and other recreational facilities. Development of the land from its existing open state to commercial/retail/industrial uses would result in an irreversible commitment of land for the useful life of the structures and for energy resources to develop, construct and maintain the proposed facili ties. The public service and facilities needs of the building occupants would be irreversible as demands for water supply, roads, solid waste disposal and sewage treatment increase, requiring long-term maintenance commitments. A significant financial investment has been made by the developer and would continue on an increased scale if the project is approved. The above commitments of resources would be substantially the same whether the proposal were built on an alternative site or for alternative uses or densities. 108 I I I I I I I I I I I I I. I I I I I. I. I I I I I . 'I I '. I I I I I I I I i I I Alternatives to the Proposal THE "NO ACTION" AL TERNA TIVE Denial of the petition to rezone the site or denial of other required city approvals would result in the site remaining in its present condition for an undetermined time and would eliminate, for the time being, the beneficial and adverse impacts discussed in this document. All environmental impacts of the alternatives discussed herein would be eliminated under this "no action" option. The "no action" alternative would result in the retention of the semi-rural character of the area with a corresponding inability to improve the local tax base. The proposed improvements to the North Creek Channel would not be possible. Since the proposal is substantially consistent with the city'S guidelines for development in the North Creek Valley, denial of the proposed action, or a reasonable approximation of the proposal with conditions, (the "no action" alternative) would probably only delay development. It could also cause similar developments to locate in less compatible areas. AL TERNA TIVE SITES The City of Bothell currently exercises jurisdictional control over other sites in the North Creek Valley Planning Area and in other areas of the city which are of suitable size for the type of development considered. A parcel of land located in King County, bounded by State Route SR 522 on the south, Interstate 405 on the west, the Bothell city limits on the north and the valley walls on the east is owned by Quadrant Corp. and is being considered for a development of a similar type and size. With a similar development the physical location of this alternative site, in relationship to the Koll site, would result in similar environmental impacts. The Quadrant parcel contains a significant amount of low wetlands on the southern portion of the site. The presence of the environmentally sensitive North Creek is lacking in this alternative site, eliminating the potential for degradation or improve- ment whiCh is present on the proposed site. Remaining existing conditions are substantially similar to those of the KolI site although access is not as direct. Sandwiched between the Koll and Quadrant parcels is a smaller strip of land located within Bothell, bounded on the north by NE 195th Steet, on the east by the valley walls, the Bothell city limits on the south and Interstate 405 on the west. The area of this alternative is approximately one-half that contained in the proposed site. The physical features of the site are similar to those of the Koll site. Environmental impacts anticipated as a result of development of this parcel would not substantially differ from 109 Proposal Alt. I Alt. 2 Alt. 3 Alt. II Alt. 5 Percent Impervious Surface Coverage 50%* 27% 40% 60% 27% 50% Total Acres of 105 140 105 105 140 105 Salable Area Maximum Floor Area IlSquare footage): Commercial 200,000 108,910 159,272 - 564,773 1,044,830 Office 350,000 186,298 278,610 - - - Industrial* 990,000 484,561 717,255 1,884,406 - - Total 1,540,000 779,769 1,155,137 1,884,406 564,773 1,044,830 (35.4 07.9 (26.5 (43.3 (13 (24 Acres) Acres) Acres) Acres) Acres) Acres) , those discussed in this document. Since the area is considerably smaller in size, unmitigated impacts would be less extensive. I I I . 1 I I I I 1 1 I I I I- I I I 1- The parcel of land located at the northwest corner of Interstate 405 and SR 522 intersection has some similar characteristics to the proposal site and has been designated by the North Creek Comprehensive Plan for a similar type of use. Impacts would be comparable at this location. AL TERNA TIVES TO THE PROPOSED PLAN As a comparison to the proposal, a number of variations in the mix or size of the proposed uses can be analyzed by changing the amount of site coverage and/or the type of proposed uses. To aid in examining the effects of such modifications, the chart which appears under each alternative discussed below was developed to show changes in square footage of each use in the proposal and the approximate percentage change in the average weekday vehicle trips (AWDT) generated. A summary of all alternatives considered is illustrated in Table XX. In all of the alternatives considered proportional changes resulting from a smaller development or one of uniform use would occur in the following elements: · Potential for wildlife habitat dependent upon carefully landscaped open space, including cover vegetation and surface water. . Air quality as affected by traffic volume. · Future intensification of land uses in the vicinity as indirectly affected by the intensity of the proposal. · Pressure for additional nearby housing caused in part by on-site employment. · Traffic volumes in approximate proportion to the size and type of use considered. · Economic impacts regarding tax revenue and site employment. TABLE XX SUMMARY OF SITE COVERAGE ALTERNATIVES * The proposed proJect would slightly exceed 50% smce half of the mdustnal portion IS calculated at 60% impervious surface coverage. 110 I I I I I I '. '. ~I ' ' I I I I I I I I I I Alternative No. I This first alternative is based on a consideration of a mix of commercial/retail, office and industrial uses similar to the proposal. However, the basic allotment of 27 percent of allowable impervious surface coverage is used with no adjustments. Change in Square Footage of Floor Area from the Proposal Change in A WDT Commercial/retail Office Industrial Total S.F. S.F. S.F. S.F. -3,402 -1,113 -2 ,790 -7,305 -91,090 -163,702 -505,439 -760,231 Based on the amount of land available for development, the maximum size of this alternative in terms of building floor area approximates 780,000 S.F., considering a mix of uses similar to the proposal. This figure represents a 760,231 S.F. reduction in floor area, In some cases, additional open space could result in larger greenbelt and stream buffer areas. The reduced project size would not generate the financial resources necessary for improvement to North Creek or for provision of public recreational facilities. Changes in Impacts The adverse effects of this Alternative I would have an impact similar to those of the proposal but on a smaller scale. This option would be accompanied by the following changes in environmental impacts. Air Air quality impacts in the area directly attributable to this alternative would be reduced due to the decrease in generated vehicular traffic. Water The potential for degradation of North Creek, due to surface water runoff not disposed of by storm sewers, would be reduced as would the potential for improvement (meandering, shading) which would not be financially feasible. Vegetation Less area would be covered by impervious surfaces, resulting in the potential for and preservation of existing vegetation. Increased open spaces would result. 111 Wildlife Attendant with increased open space would be flexibility in building location. Setbacks from the creek could be increased and large areas of existing habitat would be preserved. With this minimum development alternative, no improvements to the creek or wildlife habitat would be made. The overall effect would be more open space, but less potential for fisheries and other wildlife enhancement programs, and less impact on existing populations. Land Use The intensity of the site development would be reduced and the secondary effect of encouraging the trend toward more intensive land utilization in the vicinity would not occur to the same degree. If it would be economically possible to develop only 27 percent of the site, some portion of the remainder could possibly be leased as incidental agricultural land use. Economics/Employment This alternative would result in the employment of approximately 1,825 persons. Commercial/retail trades would account for 2n persons, offices would add another 745 and warehousing/light industrial would provide approximately 808 jobs. These figures are based upon Employment and Households Estimates For the Bellevue Area 1976, '80, '90, June 1977. Since this alternative allows a lesser economic utilization of the site, property values would not be increased to the extent of those of the proposal. Adjacent upland residential property values would be enhanced to a lesser degree due to the decrease in on-site employment opportunities and potential demands for nearby housing. A somewhat lesser commitment of public funds would be necessary to service this alternative. Development and associated population and traffic increases would require a lesser commitment of public funds to accommodate the demand for new roads, traffic control, utilities and other improvements. Transportation/Circulation The reduction in the size of the project would reduce demand on the local arterial system. The key intersection of Interstate 405 with NE 195th Street would operate at Level of Service "B" through 1985. No road improvements would be necessary. 112 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Public Services/Enerl':y/Utilities The alternative would reduce demand on these elements, but the utilities would still have to be brought to the site. Aesthetics The commercial/retail, office and light industrial uses proposed by this alternative are the same type of uses set forth in the proposal, but at lower impervious coverage percentages. Like the proposal, siting of these uses would be limited by considerations for preserving and enhancing the quality of North Creek and other environmentally sensitive areas. Development propOsed in this alternative would reduce the potential for visual blight regardless of design considerations or mitigating measures. The aesthetic benefits of a meandering creek and riparian corridor would be reduced. Summary of Alternative I Like the proposal, this alternative would change the character of the area from rural to commercial/industrial. The cost to develop the site with 27 percent impervious surface coverage might delay development. With just normal traffic growth on Interstate 405 by the year 2000 demand will exceed capacity and congestion will occur at several roadway intersections even without development. A proposal at any density will have an impact on projected traffic circulation. The reduced amount of traffic in this alternative would mean slightly better air quality than that of the proposal. A lesser amount of impervious surface would reduce surface water runoff entering the Sammamish River and allow more preservation of existing habitats, but would eliminate the potential improvements to North Creek. Development at this lowered intensity would probably destroy the project's economic viability and would hinder or eliminate any "spin-off" development in the vicinity, thereby resulting in little or no improvement in the local tax base. 113 Alternative No. II This alternative is based on consideration of a mix of commercial/retail, office and industrial uses similar to the proposal, with a 40 percent impervious surface coverage. This coverage represents a 25 percent reduction from proposal levels. Change in Square Footage of Floor Area from the Proposal Change in A WDT Commercial/retail -40,n8 s.F. -360 Office -7 1,390 S.F. -483 Industrial -272,745 S.F. _ 1,507 Total -384,863 S.F. -2,350 One hundred and five acres of usable land for development with a 40 percent impervious surface coverage results in 1,155,137 S.F. of buildings. This figure represents a 384,863 S.F. reduction in building floor area. Changes in Impacts The adverse impacts of this option would be similar to those of the proposal but on a slightly smaller scale. Alternative II would be accompanied by the following changes in environmental impacts. Air The decrease in the area coverage of this alternative would result in reduced air quality impacts due to the decrease in vehicular traffic levels. Water The reduction in intensity of development in this alternative would result in a decrease in impervious surfaces and an attendant reduction in the amount of surface runoff. Vegetation See Alternative No. I. Wildlife See Alternative No. I. 114 ,. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 'I II ,'I I 'I 'I I I I I I I I I I Land Use This alternative provides for the development of a mix of uses similar to the proposal. However, the size of the specific developments would be less due to the decrease in the amount of allowable impervious surfaces. This 40% coverage is substantially less than other commercial developments in Snohomish and King Counties. Since 40% coverage is probably not economically viable, there would be little or no "spin-off" development of similar scales in the vicinity. Economics/Employment This alternative would result in the employment of approximately 2,707 persons. Commercial/retail trades would account for 398 persons, offices would add another 1,114, and warehousing/light industrial would provide approximately 1,195 jobs. These figures are based on City of Bellevue Planning Department estimates. Alternative II allows lesser economic utilization of the site resulting in a slower increase in the value of adjacent properties. The demand on upland residential property would be enhanced to a lesser degree, due to the decline in on-site employment opportunities. A corresponding smaller commitment of public funds would be necessary to service this option. Development of any associated population and traffic impacts would also require a lesser commitment of public funds to accommodate new roads, traffic control devices, utilities and other improvements. T r ansporta tion/ Circulation The reduction in the size of the proposal is estimated to reduce traffic generation by 13% assuming a similar mix of uses. Traffic at the intersection of 1-405 and NE 195th Street would operate at Level of Service "B" at completion. Although demand on the local arterial systems would be reduced, estimates show that before the year 2000 both Interstate 405 and NE 195th Street would be operating at capacity, and congestion would occur during peak traffic periods even without any development on this site. Any contributions to these conditions as they will exist would have a significant impact. Public Services/Energy/Utilities See Alternative I. Aesthetics Alternative II is comprised of the same types of land proposal, but at a lower impervious surface coverage. uses contained in the Arrangement of the 115 buildings would be limited by considerations for preserving and enhancing the quality of North Creek and similarly sensitive areas. The reduction in the total amount of impervious surface coverage of this alternative would not have a significantly different aesthetic impact than that of the proposal. Summary of Alternative II Alternative II would change the character of the area from rural to commer- cial/industrial. The site development cost at 40 percent impervious coverage may delay development. Densities considered would impact existing arterials which are projected to be operating at capacity. To a lesser degree than Alternative I, the amount of surface water runoff would be decreased due to lower levels of impervious surface coverage, air quality would improve, and vegetation and wildlife habitats could be established on the site. Development at this lowered intensity level would probably destroy the project's economic viability, and would hinder or eliminate any adjacent development, thereby resulting in little or no improvement in the local tax base. 116 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I '. 'I i I '. "1 'I ~I' .. 'I I I II I I I Alternative III This alternative considers a 60 percent impervious coverage of all light industrial uses. This intensity of development would result in an 22 percent increase in the total amount of floor area coverage from that of the proposal. Change in Square Footage of Floor Area from the Proposal Change in A WDT Industrial +344,406 S.F. One hundred and five acres of usable land for development with 60 coverage results in 1,884,406 S.F. of building floor area. -7,42 I percent surface Changes in Impacts The adverse impacts associated with this alternative would be different from those of the proposal, both in terms of type and magnitude. The impacts discussed below would result from Alternative III implementation. Air In comparison with the proposal, this alternative would result in a decrease in carbon monoxide emissions. The amount of heavy truck traffic would increase as a result of light industrial use. This increase would be offset somewhat by the elimination in pollutant emissions associated with trips to and from retail uses. Water The total amount of impervious surface coverage under this alternative is slightly more than that of the proposal. No major change in surface water runoff would occur. Land Use This alternative provides for the development of the entire 140-acre site into all light industrial uses at a 60 percent coverage. This intensity of development is less than other general commercial areas within Snohomish and King counties, and could result in similar development patterns in the North Creek Valley area, particular I y on the valley floor. Risk of Explosion or Hazardous Emission Depending on the type of materials warehoused, the risk of explosion or hazardous emission could increase due to the larger amount of storage space considered. It is 117 not anticipated that warehousing or the production of hazardous or dangerous materials would occur on the site. Such a use would be subject to governmental approval. Safety measures would also be observed during construction and the risk of explosion would be no greater than at similar construction sites. Economics/Employment Alternative III would result in the employment of approximately 3,140 persons, based on Employment and Household Estimates for the Bellevue Area 1976, '80, '90, June 1977. This figure represents a slight decline in the projected number of employment opportunities resulting from the proposed development. This decrease results from the lower number of workers employed in light industrial jobs per unit of floor space. Development of the site with this type and intensity of use will cause adjacent property values to inflate and will increase the demand on upland residential property. These increases would be similar to those of the proposal and less than Alternatives I, II and IV. Transportation/Circulation The traffic associated with light industrial uses is expected to decrease the total traffic generation rate by 42 percent from that of the proposal. The impacts of this alternative would be less than any of the other alternatives. The number of expected visitors to this type of development is expected to be small, with the majority of trips being made by employees going to and from work and conducting personal business during "breaks." The number of large trucks making deliveries and pick-ups would increase with the development of industrial uses at the site. With Alternative III the majority of traffic flow would occur during peak hours. Evening peak hour traffic would operate at Level of Service "F" at the intersection of 1-405/NE 195th Street, both southbound and northbound. Extreme traffic delays would be experienced as demand would exceed capacity by 14 percent. Delays could cause some drivers to divert to alternate routes. Southeast 228th Street through Snohomish County could become congested near SR 527 and the interchange of SR 522 and 132nd Street NE could also become overloaded. Public Services/Enerl!:y/Utilities This alternative could result in increased amounts of energy consumption and utility demands. These increases would likely stem from unique and specialized types of operations associated with light industrial uses and their corresponding 118 I I I I I I I I I I I I I- I I I I I I I I I I I I '. I I I I 'I I ,I 'I I I I I utility requirements, such as high voltage electricity, high pressure water systems, and special sewerage requirements. Aesthetics The impact Alternative III would have on this element of the environment would be greater than impacts associated with the mixed-use proposal. The type of buildings expected to locate on the site with Alternative III development might be visually less pleasing due to scale and cost limitations depending on the type of industrial development. Open spaces and greenbelt areas and storm water retention areas would help to mitigate the increased aesthetic impact. The diversity of building types and design considerations attendant with the proposal would be lacking under this alternative. The potential for nighttime use could also increase the amount of light and glare generated on the site. Summary of Alternative III This alternative would Change the character of the area from rural to light industrial. A surge of evening peak hour traffic would cause overloads at the 1-405 interchange possibly causing traffic to divert to local two-lane roads. The aesthetic impact of this alternative might be greater due largely to the scale, building plan and materials which are necessary to make light industrial development economically viable. 119 Alternative IV This alternative is based on a consideration of 27 percent impervious coverage of commercial/retail uses. Alternative IV would result in a 63 percent decrease in the total amount of surface floor area from that of the proposal. Change in Square Footage of Floor Area from the Proposal Commercial/retail -975,227 s.F. Change in A WDT +1,662 This alternative would result in over 564,000 s.F. of commercial/retail structures and parking. The entire site would be occupied by an undetermined number of commercial/ retail buildings. Due to economics, this is the most probable alternative use at 27%. Changes in Impacts Adverse impacts attendant with this option differ from those resulting from the proposal, in terms of magnitude and type. Alternative IV would be accompanied by the following changes in environmental impacts. Air This alternative would result in a significant degradation of air quality due to the increase in vehicular traffic levels. These increases are anticipated despite the reduction in the overall size of the proposal. Water See Alternative II. Wildlife No improvements to the North Creek Channel or adjacent habitat would occur. Land Use This alternative considers the entire site to be comprised of commercial/retail structures at 27 percent coverage. This figure represents a significant decrease in the average impervious coverage common to commercial developments in Snoho- mish and King counties. Economics/Employment This alternative would result in the employment of nearly 1,400 persons based on a Bellevue Planning Department study. This figure represents a decrease in the number of on-site workers. 120 I I I I I I I 'I , '. '. I I I I . I I I I Alternative IV allows lesser economic utilization of the site resulting in a slower increase in the value of adjacent properties. The demand for upland housing would also be lessened due to the decline in employment opportunities. This option would require a greater commitment of funds to accommodate the demands for new roads, traffic control devices, utilities and other improvements. The 13 acres of commercial/retail development could have a significant adverse effect on the existing Bothell Central Business District. Such effects could lead to the degeneration of some smaller businesses. Transportation/Circulation Total traffic flow would increase by 9 percent over that of the proposal. This increase is foreseeable due to the retail use and attendant increase in the number of vehicle trips. Increases in traffic generation would significantly impact existing arter ials. The interchange of 1-405 and NE 195th Street would operate at Level of Service "D" during the evening peak hour. Mitigation measures similar to those of the proposal would be needed. Public Services/Energy/Utilities See Alternative I. Aesthetics There would be more open space with this alternative, but the retail use would be much more intensive with more expansive parking areas. Summary of Alternative IV This alternative would result in changing the Character of the site from rural to commercial/retail. The site development cost at 27 percent coverage may be prohibitive of any development at this time. The use considered would have a significant socio-economic impact on the existing Bothell business district. The extent of this impact would depend on the size and type of commercial/retail businesses attracted to this center. Despite the low density considered, the 13 acres of retail structures would generate a significant amount of patronage which would contribute toward projected traffic problems. The reduction in the amount of impervious coverage could help to enhance the quality of North Creek by reducing surface runoff. Increases in the local tax base may be delayed due to site development costs, as may associated development in the North Creek Valley expected to follow implementation of this type of proposal. Retail is the most probable use of the site if restricted to 27% coverage. 121 Alternative V This alternative is similar to the retail use discussed in the prior option except that impervious coverage is considered at 50 percent. Change in Square Footage of Floor Area from the Proposal Chan~e in A WDT +14,671 Commercial/retail -495,170 S.F. Approximately 1,044,830 S.F. of commercial/retail structures would result from imple- mentation of this alternative. Change in Impacts Environmental impacts resulting if the project were to be carried out as proposed would be changed in degree and kind if Alternative V was chosen. Impacts resulting from this alternative would be similar to those discussed in Alternative IV but would occur on a larger scale. The following changes would be associated with the implementation of Alternative V. Air Air quality impacts would be worse due to traffic levels generated by commercial/ retail uses. Water See Alternative I. Land Use Alternative V considers 50 percent of the entire site covered by commercial/retail uses. This figure represents a decrease in the surface coverage of typical commercial developments in Snohomish and King counties. Implementation of this alternative would result in changing the character of existing land use from rural to commercial/retail. Such a change could be expected to set a precedent for similar projects in the North Creek study area. Economics/Employment Such substantial retail development could have a significant socio-economic impact on existing retail businesses in Bothell and the surrounding area. Any increase Alternative V would bring to the tax base would have to be considered in light of 122 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I~ I~ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I possible loss of existing tax revenues from operating businesses affected by retail development of the site. The 50 percent commercial/retail impervious surface coverage alternative would result in the employment of approximately 2,612 persons based on Bellevue City Planning Department figures (J employee/400 square feet). This figure represents nearly a 26 percent decrease in employment opportunities compared with the potential number created by the proposal. This alternative considers the maximum impervious site coverage permitted by the Bothell Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance for this use in the North Creek Valley planning area. Maximum utilization of the site could be expected to contribute toward inflating the market value of adjacent properties. This alternative would require a commitment of public funds to maintain roads, utilities and other improvements made necessary by such a development. The cost of construction and installation of necessary on- and off-site improvements would be borne by the developer, either privately or through available state or federal grants. Use of public funds for such improvements would eliminate their availability for commitment to other uses. Transportation/Circulation The commercial/retail buildings would result in a 55 percent increase in traffic generation over proposal levels. Impact on adjacent arterial corridors resulting from this alternative would be significant. The increase above the normal growth rate of traffic is projected for arterials that would be operating at capacity before the year 2000. The northbound and southbound ramps for Interstate 405 would operate at Level of Service "F" by 1985 if Alternative V were implemented. Drivers probably would divert to local roads north through Snohomish County and east to Woodinville, thereby causing adverse impacts to neighboring jurisdictions. Aesthetics The aesthetic impact of Alternative V would be similar to that resulting from the proposal. The reduction in the amount of surface coverage would result in improvement in the overall appearance of this option. This increase in open space, together with an anticipated well-designed appearance and location of commer- cial/retail use structures, could contribute toward aesthetic improvement provided repetition is avoided and building placement is done with considerations for preserving and enhancing environmentally sensitive areas. This could be offset by increased use of signs and lighting typical of commercial and retail uses. 123 Summary of Alternative V This alternative would also result in changing the character of the site from rural to commercial/retail. Site coverage at 50 percent is the maximum allowed by the Bothell Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance covering the North Creek Planning Area. The commercial/retail use at this level of intensity would have significant environmental impacts on the existing Bothell retail community. The extent of this impact would depend largely on the type and size of businesses attracted to this retail center. The retail use would generate a significant amount of traffic which would contribute toward projected traffic congestion and accelerate the need for improving traffic facilities. The surface water runoff resulting from the impervious surfaces would have to be handled carefully to avoid degradation of North Creek. This alternative could be expected to improve the local tax base due to its economic viability which was lacking at lower surface coverage percentages. Any such increases would have to be viewed in light of expected impacts on existing retail businesses which would be competing for business with uses considered under this alternative. Similar proposals for other parcels could be expected to follow if development of the site should occur. 124 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I- I I I I I I I I I I I -, I '. 1'1 I I I I I '. I I Unavoidable Adverse Impacts Unavoidable adverse impacts which cannot be mitigated or avoided as a result of the proposed development are listed below. Earth- T opo~raphy. Geolo~y and Soils Leveling and redistribution of site soils from grading, excavations and construction of access roads and parking areas. Air Deterioration in air quality although remaining within federal standards. Water Temporary impacts resulting from re-alignment of the creek channel, site grading until stream channel is stabilized and vegetation established. Long-term impacts due to increased impervious surfaces, resulting in increased runoff and reduced infiltration of stormwater. Vegetation Removal of existing site vegetation by site grading. Wildlife Wildlife habitat essentially eliminated as construction is implemented, but replaced by a more natural riparian corridor habitat. Noise Increased noise levels increase on and adjacent to the site and along the 1-405 corridor. Light and Glare Additional on-site sources of light and glare resulting from building, parking and roadway lighting. 125 Land Use Loss of existing open, undeveloped agricultural land. Secondary impact of encouraging development of adjacent hillside and valley floor areas. Alternative site uses would be lost. Natural Resources Consumption of fossil fuels during the construction and operational phases of the project and by vehicles traveling to and from the site. Risk of Explosion or Hazardous Emissions Temporary risk of equipment related accidents would occuring during construction. Population and Housing Secondary impact of accelerating demands for adjacent housing resulting from in- creased on-site employment opportunities. Transportation and Circulation Although mitigated by widening of 195th and improvement to several intersections, there would be a significant increase in traffic along NE 195th Street and the intersection with 1-405. Public Services - Fire, Police Project development substantially increasing demands on fire protection and law enforcement personnel requirements. Energy Construction sitework and operation of the proposal consuming energy for heating, lighting, equipment operation, construction and employee commuting. Aesthetics The existing pastoral setting replaced by a 140-acre mixed-use development. 126 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II :1 References The references listed here are incorporated by reference. Beaton, J.L., A.J. Ranzieri, E.C. Shirley and J.B.Skog, Mathematical Approach to Esti- matin~ Highway Impact on Air Quality, CA-HWY-MR6)70lSZ)(4)-72-08, State of CaIJ- fornia - Division of Highways, 1972. Bill Mundy & Associates, A Market Analysis of the Proposed North Creek Nei~hborhood Center for the KolI Company, Seattle, Washington, 1980. Burchell, Robert W. and David Listokin, The Fiscal Impact I-!andbook, Center of Urban Policy Research, New Brunswick, N.J., 1978. Census Bureau, Characteristics of the Population - 1970 Census of Population, Wash- ington, D.C., 1973. City of Bothell, Final EIS, North Creek Valley Comprehensive Plan, Bothell, Washington, 1979. City of Bothell, Plan for the Valley; An Amendment to the Bothell Comprehensive Plan for the North Creek Valley Plannin~ Area, Bothell, Washington, 1980. City of Bothell, Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance, Bothell, Washington,_. City of Bothell, Ordinance No. 971, Bothell, Washington, 1980. City of Bothell, Ordinance No. 972, Bothell, Washington, 1980. City of Bothell, Ordinance No. 973, Bothell, Washington, 1980. City of Bothell, SEPA Guidelines for Development Proposals in the North Creek Valley Special District, Bothell, Washington, 1980. City of Bothell, Shoreline Master Program for the City of Bothell, Bothell, Washington, 1975. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Flood Insurance Study for the City of Bothell (Preliminary), Washington, D.C., 1980. Environmental Protection Agency, A Manual for the Review of Highwav Noise Impact, 55/9-77-356, Washington, D.C., 1977. Environmental Protection Agency, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42 (with revisions), Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1973. Environmental Protection Agency, Information on Levels of Environmental Noise Requi- site to Protect Public Health and Welfare with an Adequate Mar~in of Safety, 55019- 74- 004, Washington, D.C., 1974. Juelson, Thomas C., Suggestions for Revegetation of Stream banks in Western Washin~ton, Environmental Management Division, Washington State Department of Game, 1976. Koll Company, The Koll Business Center - Bothell, Desi~n Guidelines and Covenants, CondItIons and RestrIctions, Redmond, Washington, 1981. Mathematical Sciences Northwest, Inc., Estimatin~ Energy Impacts of Residential and Commercial Building Development for U.S. Department of Energy Region X, 22 February 1979. Metro, Proposed Areawide Water Ouality Plan, Pursuant to Section 208 of P.L.92-500, King County, Washington, Cedar-Green River Basins, 1977. 127 Northwest Environmental Consultants, Inc., "An Evaluation of Economic Implications of Land Use Controls for the North Creek Valley, Phase IT Report, Bothell, Washington," February, 1979. Pacific Northwest River Basins Commission, Climatological Handbook - Columbia Basin States, Vancouver, Washington, 1968. Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency, Air Ouality Data Summary, 1975-1976, Technical Services Division, Seattle, Washington, Published Annually. Puget Sound Council of Governments, Comparison of IRDP, METRO 201/208 RIBCO and RDPI AAM Population Forecasts, Seattle, Washington, 1977. Soil Conservation Service, Snohomish County Area, Preliminary Soils Survey (draft copy subject to revision), USDA, Lake Stevens, Washington, 1976. Washington State Department of Ecology, Ambient Air Quality Standards, Olympia, Washington, 1971. Washington State Department of Ecology, Maximum Environmental Noise Levels, (WAC 173-60), Olympia, Washington, 1975. Washington State Department of Ecology, Motor Vehicle Noise Performance Standards, (WAC 173-62), Olympia, Washington, 1975. ORGANIZATIONS CONSUL TED: State of Washington: Department of Fisheries Department of Transportation City of Bothell: Fire Department Planning Department Public Works Police Department Alderwood Water District Northwest Garbage Company Washington Natural Gas Company General Telephone Company Sno-King Garbage Company Puget Sound Power & Light 128 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I. I I I I I I I I I I '. I I I I I I I :1 I I I I I List of Elements of the Environment ELEMENTS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Earth Geology . . Soils . . . . Topography. . Unique physical features. Erosion . . . . . . . . Accretion/avulsion . ... . . . . Air Air quality. Odor . Climate Water Surface water movement. Runoff/ absorption. . . Floods. . . . . . . . Surface water quantity Surface water quality . . Ground water movement. Ground water quantity. Ground water quality Public water supplies Flora Numbers or diversity of species. Unique species . . . . . Barr iers and/or corridors. Agricultural crops. Fauna Numbers or diversity of species. Unique species . . . . . Barriers and/or corridors. Fish or wildlife habitat ~ . . . . Light and Glare. Land Use Natural Resources Rate of use .......... Nonrenewable resources . . . . . . Risk of Explosion or Hazardous Emissions 129 . . . . PAGE 21 21 21 nfa 24 31 34 34 34 31 31 31 31 31 33 33 33 87 25 nfa 25 25 27 nfa 27 27 42 48 50 47 47 49 Human Health (including mental health) .' I I PAGE I 59 59 I 103 I 7Z 16 I 65 71 nfa I 66 80 I 81 . 82 I 83 84 84 I 84 I 84 86 I 87 87 I. 88 88 89 89' I 89 I 95 95 I 59 I I I ELEMENTS OF THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT Population . Housing . '. Employment Transportation/Circulation Vehicular transportation generated Parking facilities . Transportation systems Movement/circulation of people or goods. Waterborne, rail and air traffic Traffic hazards Public Services Fire. Police Schools Parks or other recreational facilities Maintenance . Other governmental services Energy Amount required Source/ a vailabili ty Utili ties Energy Communications Water Sewer . Storm water Solid waste. Aesthetics . Recreation. A r chaeol o~i cal/ His tor ical Additional Population Characteristics 130 ". I I I ", I I I I , I I I I I I I I I Appendix NOISE General Description of Noise Noise is any sound which is undesirable because it interferes with speech and hearing or is otherwise annoying (the term "environmental noise", as used by the Environmental Protection Agency, means the intensity, duration and character of sound from all sources). Noise is a physical phenomenon created primarily from mechanical vibration. Noise occurs in a predictable fashion where free sound radiation is governed with minor variance by an inverse relationship (as the distance from the source increases, the sound is reduced) and its transmission is determined by the physical properties of the transmitting medium (usually air). Man's response to noise is determined by the sound level emanating from the source of noise and the frequency spectrum of the sound. Noise intensity represents the level of sound which is weighted in accordance to the apparent loudness perceived by an average human observer. This number is expressed in "A"-weighted decibels and is written as dBA. This descriptor is the one generally accepted as having the best correlation with human judgements of loudness. Each increase of 10 dBA in the noise level is subjectively judged as a approximate doubling of loudness. Noise intensity covers such a broad range that it is measured logarithmically and noise levels usually represent a statistical average for a given period of time. Since noise is rarely steady or constant for long periods, average noise levels do not readily account for very high noise levels of very short duration. For example, a long-term average of a 60 decibel (dBA) sound level over a 24-hour period might include peak sound levels of 110 dBA, but such an -event might be less than one second in duration. This fluctuating noise can be described statistically by noise levels exceeded for given percentages of time during a prescribed time period. The commonly used statistical levels are L90, L50, and L 10' for which the number in the subscript indicates the percentage of time that the given level is exceeded. The L90 is indicative of background noise in the absence of local noise events. The L50 is the median or "average" sound level exceeded 50 percent of the time. The L10 is usually indicative of maximum noise from recurring events such as traffic during peak volumes. 131 The total noise exposure for a prescribed time period is given by the Leq, or equivalent level, which is the dBA level of a constant sound having the amount of acoustical energy contained in the time-varying measured noise. The Ldn' or day-night sound level, is the Leq over 24 hours with a 10 dBA weighting applied to the nighttime 00:00 PM to 7:00 AM) noise. The Ldn environmental noise descriptor is preferred by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The criteria used for evaluation of noise impacts are as follows: Regulations and Guidelines for Environmental Impact Statements The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Noise Guidelines for Environmental Impact Statements identify levels which can be used to evaluate noise impacts. These levels are not to be construed as standards. The document states that "until more definitive guidelines are established for various types of projects, EPA personnel will be guided by the general considerations" indicated below for residential areas: Ldn 55 dBA Levels are generally acceptable; no noise impact is generally associated with these levels. Ldn 55-65 dBA Adverse noise impacts exist; lowest noise level possible should be strived for. Ldn 65-70 dBA Significant adverse noise impacts exist; allowable only in unusual cases where lower levels are clearly demonstrated not to be possible. Ldn 70 dBA Levels have unacceptable public health and welfare impacts. The guidelines classify noise increases over the present ambient as follows: 0-5 dBA 5-10 dBA slight impact significant impact over 10 dBA very serious impact The guidelines also specify the information that is needed to evaluate noise impacts and the abatement measures that should be considered if abatement is required. The Washington State Department of Ecology (WAC 173-60) has also specified regula- tions relating to maximum environmental noise levels. They have classified various areas or zones and established maximum permissible noise levels. 132 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I These "EDNA's" (Environmental Designation for Noise Abatement) are classified as: a) Residential area - Class A EDNA b) Commercial areas - Class B EDNA c) Industrial areas - Class C EDNA The maximum permissible noise levels for these zones are shown below. EDNA OF NOISE SOURCE NOISE LIMITATIONS EDNA OF RECEIVING PROPERTY CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C CLASS A 55 dBA 57 60 CLASS C 60 dBA 65 70 CLASS B 57 dBA 60 65 Between the hours of 10:00 PM and 7:00 AM, the noise limitations of the above table shall be reduced by 10 dBA for receiving property within Class A EDNA's. These noise levels may be exceeded on the receiving property by 15 dBA for 1.5 minutes, 10 dBA for 5 minutes, 5 dBA for 15 minutes for anyone hour, day or night. The limitations suggested by the State are approximately equivalent to the Ldn levels indicated by the EPA in residential areas. Motor vehicle noise is controlled under a different standard (W AC 173-62). Because the use of motor vehicles would regularly violate the maximum permissible levels in the EDNA's, additional regulations have been established to cover this category. The following standard has been promulgated by the State of Washington control the noise levels from motor vehicles: "No person shall operate any motor vehicle upon any public highway or any combination of such vehicles under any condi- tions or grade, load, acceleration or deceleration in such a manner as to exceed the following maximum permissible sound levels for the category of vehiCle, as measured at a distance of 50 feet from the center of the lane of travel within the speed limits specified, under procedures established by the State Commission on Equipment". The maximum permissible sound levels referred to are shown below. Other conditions on motor vehicle noise are also established, but relate primarily to the occurrence of noise from specific activity. 133 MOTOR VEHICLE NOISE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS VEHICLE CA TEGOR Y 35 MPH OR LESS OVER 35 MPH Motor vehicles over 10,000 Ibs. GVWR* or GCWR** 86 dBA 90 dBA Motorcycles 80 75 84 80 All other motor vehicles *GVWR - Gross Vehicle Weight Rating **GCWR - Gross Combination Weight Rating 134 MANUFACTURED AFTER 1975 86 dBA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I- I 83 80 I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I APPENDIX B Site Coverage Calculations (Building Floor Area Calculations for the Proposal and Five Alternatives) The proposed project was planned to be in general conformance with the Bothell Codes and to b~ economically feasible. Five alternatives were then identified to provide a range of development intensities and land uses allowable under the Bothell Codes. The impacts of these alternatives are assessed in the AL TERNA TIVES to the proposal section of this document. The same assumptions and process were used to determine the scale of each alternative. The detailed calculations to determine gross square feet of building floor space by type of use (retail, office, industrial) for the proposal and the five alternatives are presented on the following pages. The steps in the process were as follows: I. Identify a probable mix of uses. Based on the sponsor's estimate of market demand, a mixture of land-use types is proposed: Commercial/Retail Office Light Industrial 1996 of land area 2496 5796 2. Identify common open space and public rights-of-way. For the proposal, these total 35 acres (see site plan). 3. Calculate total salable area. Total site acreage is 140 acres minus 35 acres (open space plus rights-of-way) to equal 105 acres salable area. 4. Calculate allowable impervious surface coverage assuming full bonus allow- ances have been earned. Up to 5096 of the total site acreage is allowed for commercial/retail and office uses. This would result in 70 acres of impervious surface on the site. Up to 6096 of the total site acreage is allowed for certain types of clean, light industrial uses. This would result in 84 acres of impervious surface. Seventy acres (5096 total impervious surface) is 6796 of 105 acres (salable area). Eighty-four acres (6096 total impervious surface) is 8096 of 105 acres (salable area). 135 5. Apply to the proposed project. Commercial/Retail (Based on 50% impervious surface) Nineteen percent of salable area is commercial/retail (105 acres) (J 9%) = 20 acres 20 acres = 871,200 square feet (s.f.) Multiply 871,200 s.f. of commercial/retail salable area by allowable impervious surface (50% of total, 67% of salable area). (871,200 s.f.) (67%) = 583,704 s.f. Maximum allowable impervious surface under commercial/retail = 583,704 s.f. The total building floor area proposed for commercial/retail uses is 200,000 s.f. The parking requirements (per Bothell Codes) are one parking space per 200 s.f. of building floor area for most retail uses. Thus 1,000 parking spaces are required for the proposed commercial/retail uses. Multiply 1,000 spaces by 375 s.f. per space (this allows for parking space plus circulation to achieve total area of parking). (1,000 spaces) (375 s.f.) = 375,000 s.f. parking Add building area 200,000 s.f., to parking area, 375,000 s.f. to obtain approximate total impervious surface proposed for commercial/retail uses: (200,000 s.f. buildings) + (375,000 s.f. parking) = 575,000- s.f. impervious surface proposed. The total impervious surface proposed is slightly less than the maximum allowable for commercial/retail uses. Thus it approximates the probable maximum development condi tion. Office (Based on 50% impervious surface) Twenty-four percent of salable area is office (105 acres) (24%) = 25 acres 25 acres = 1,089,000 s.f. Multiply 1,089,000 s.f. of office salable area by allowable impervious surface (50% of total, 67% of salable area): (1,089,000 s.f.) (67%) = n9,630 s.f. Maximum allowable impervious surface under office use = 729,630 s.f. The total building floor area proposed for office use is 350,000 s.f. This would be constructed in a five-story building. Thus, the impervious surface coverage of the buildings would total 70,000 s.f. 136 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The Bothell parking requirements are one parking space per ZOO s.f. of building floor area. Thus, 1,750 parking spaces are required for the proposed office uses. Multiply 1,750 spaces by 375 s.f. per space to obtain total impervious surface of the parking and circulation areas, 656,250 s.f. Add the building footprint, 70,000 s.f., to the parking area 656,250 s.f. to obtain the approximate total impervious surface proposed for office use: (70,000 s.f. buildings) + (656,250 s.f. of parking) = 726,250 s.f. impervious surface proposed. The total impervious surface proposed for office use is slightly less than the maximum allowable for office uses. Thus it approximates the probable maximum development condition. Light Industrial The sponsor has estimated that roughly half of the proposed light industrial uses would qualify for the 10% bonus in impervious surface allowable under the Bothell Codes for clean, light industrial uses. Therefore, these calculations are based on the assumption that half of the light industrial area would be developed at 50% and half at 60% impervious surface. Fifty-seven percent of salable area is light industrial: 005 acres) (57%) = 60 acres 60 acres = 2,613,600 s.f. Multiply 2,613,600 s.f. of salable light industrial land by allowable impervious surface: a) (~ at 50% of total, 67% of salable area) ~ (2,613,600 s.f.) (67%) = 875,556 s.f. Maximum allowable impervious surface under 50% coverage = 875,556 s.f. The total building area proposed for light industrial use at 50% impervious surface is 450,000 s.f. The sponsor has proposed providing one parking space per 400 s.f. of light industrial building space. This substantially exceeds the City Code requirements and would result in 1,125 parking spaces for the light industrial developed at 50% impervious surface. Multiply 1,IZ5 parking spaces by 37.5 s.f. per space to achieve total area of parking and circulation. 0,125 spaces) (375 s.f.) = 421,875 s.f. Add building area, 450,000 s.f. to parking area 421,875 s.f. to obtain approximate total impervious surface proposed for light industrial developed at 50% total impervious surface: 137 (450,000 s.f. buildings) + (421,875 s.f. parking) = 871,875 s.f. impervious surface proposed b) (Yz at 6096 of total, 8096 of salable area) Yz (2,613,600 s.f.) (8096) = 1,045,440 s.f. The maximum allowable impervious surface for the proposed light industrial use developed under 6096 impervious surface is 1,045,440 s.f. The total building area proposed for light industrial use at 6096 impervious surface is 540,000 s.f. One parking space per 400 s.f. of light industrial building area as proposed would result in 1,350 parking spaces. Multiply 1,350 parking spaces by 375 s.f. per space to achieve total area of parking and circulation: 0,350 spaces) (375 s.f.) = 506,250 s.f. Add building area, 540,000 s.f. to parking area, 506,250 s.f., to obtain approximate total impervious surface proposed for light industrial developed at 6096 total impervious surface: (540,000 s.f. buildings) + (506,250 s.f. parking) = 1,046,250 s.f. proposed c) Calculate total light industrial proposed Li~ht Industrial Impervious Surface Coverage Yz at 5096 Yz at 6096 Total allowable impervious surface coverage building floor space proposed parking and circulation proposed impervious surface 871,875 s.f. 1,046,250 s.f. 1,918,125 s.f. The total building area plus parking and circulation area proposed for light industrial is slightly less than the allowable impervious surface coverage. Thus it approximates the probable maximum development condition. 875,556 s.f. 1,045,440 s.f. 1,920,996 s.f. 450,000 421,875 s.f. s.f. 540,000 506,250 s.f. s.f. 990,000 928,125 s.f. s.f. 6. Apply process to alternatives. To provide a method for systematic and consistent comparison of alternatives to the proposal, the percentage of the proposed building floor area of the allowable impervious 138 I I I I I I I I I I I I I- I I I I I I 'I I I I I I I I I II il II I I I I I I I surface for each use type was used. This results in the following percentages: Type of Use Commercial/Retail Office Light Industrial Floor Area Allowable Percentage Proposed Impervious Surface 200,000 s.f. 583,704 s.f. 34.3% 350,000 s.f. n9,630 s.f. 48% 990,000 s.f. 1,920,996 s.1. 51.5% The alternatives considered are the following: Alternative I - is a mixture of uses comparable to the proposal but based on a maximum of 27% impervious surface. With this low impervious surface coverage, there would be no incentive for the sponsor to provide common open space. Thus, the entire 140-acre site is treated as salable area. The comparison of uses results in the following: Use Type % of Salable Area Acres Square Feet Commercial/Retail 19% 27 acres 1,176,120 Office 24% 33 acres 1,437,480 Light Industrial 57% 80 acres 3,484,800 100% 140 acres 6,098,400 s.f. Multiply these gross areas of use by the 27% allowable impervious surface to otain allowable impervious surface for each use (e.g. 1,176,120 s.f. commercial/retail x 27%). Use Type Commercial/Retail Office Light Industrial Allowable Impervious Surface 317,522 s.f. 388,120 s.f. 940,896 s.f. To obtain comparable building areas, multiply these areas by the appropriate percent- ages of building floor area. Use Type Commercial/Retail Office Light Industrial Building Floor Area % of Impervious Surface 34.3% 48% 51.5% Allowable Building Floor Area 108,910 s.f. 186,298 s.f. 484,561 s.f. Alternative IT - is a mixture of uses comparable to the proposal but based on a maximum of 40% impervious surface coverage. It is assumed that common open space would be required to qualify for the hi~her impervious surface coverage. Thus, the calculations are based on 105 acres of salable area. 139 140 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Use Type 96 of Salable Area Acres Square Feet Commercial/Retail 1996 20 acres 871,200 5.f. Office 2496 25 acres 1,089,000 5.f. Light Industrial 5796 60 acres 2,613,000 s.f. 10096 105 acres salable area Commercial/Retail 871,ZOO s.f. x 53.396 impervious surface = 464,349 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 34.396 of impervious surface = 159,275 s.f. building floor area Office 1,089,000 s.f. x 53.396 impervious surface = 580,437 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 4896 of impervious surface = 278,610 s.f. building floor area Light Industry 2,613,000 s.f. x 53.396 impervious surface = 1,.392,729 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 51.596 of impervious surface = 717,Z55 s.f. building floor area Alternative III - is all light industrial use developed "at 6096 impervious surface coverage. It is assumed that common open space would be required to qualify for this higher impervious surface coverage. Thus, the calculations are based on 105 acres of salable area. Light Industrial 105 acres = 4,573,800 s.f. 105 acres x 8096 = 84 acres maximum impervious surface 84 acres = 6096 of 140 acres or 6096 impervious surface Li~ht Industrial 4,573,800 s.f. x 8096 impervious surface = 3,659,040 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 51.596 of impervious surface = 1,884,406 s.f. building floor area Alternative IV - is all commercial/retail use developed at 2796 impervious surface coverage. With this low impervious surface coverage, there would be no incentive for the sponsor to provide common open space. Thus, the entire 140-acre site is treated as salable area. Commercial/Retail 140 acres = 6,098,400 s.f. Commercial/Retail 6,098,400 s.f. x 2796 impervious surface = 1,646,568 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 34.396 of impervious surface = 564,773 s.f. building floor area I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Alternative V - is all commercial/retail use developed at 50% impervious surface coverage. It is assumed that common open space would be required to qualify for this higher impervious surface coverage. Thus, the calculations are based on 105 acres of salable area. Commercial/Retail 105 acres = 4,573,800 s.f. 105 acres x 66.6% = 70 acres maximum impervious surface 70 acres = 50% of 140 acres or 50% impervious surface coverage Commercial/Retail 4,573,800 s.f. x 66.6% impervious surface = 3,046,151 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 34.3% of impervious surface = 1,044,830 s.f. building floor area 141 APPENDIX C Fiscal Impacts This section analyzes the estimated costs and revenues associated with the proposed development. It projects the direct costs incurred by the City of Bothell and the immediate revenues which would be generated by the commercial and industrial development of the subject property. Indirect impacts (such as those attributable to the effect of the proposal on residential development and related service needs and/or revenues) are not considered. Such secondary impacts are nearly impossible to predict, and/or separate from primary impacts. The analysis, furthermore, is concerned solely with the costs and revenues of the proposal to the city. The private revenues and costs of public actions (e.g. land dedication as a condition of land use approval, special assessments on real property) are not included, nor are the costs and revenues flowing to utilities, special districts, the county, regional authorities, or the state. The costs and revenues examined in the analysis are expressed in 1981 dollars. The fiscal impacts of the proposal, therefore, are considered in terms of the costs and revenues the facility would generate if it were completed and operating in 1981. Although it is recognized that the development of the site would occur over several years, and that inflation would increase costs and revenues, it is assumed that the relative long-term relationship of costs and revenues would not change dramatically over time. The analysis is not useful to evaluate the immediate fiscal impact of the proposal, however, because of the lag between the time the new development would begin to require public services and the time the city would begin to receive the revenues generated by the project. The method used to determine the servicing costs of the proposal is referred to as the Employment Anticipation Method by Burchell and Listokin. It is the most comprehen- sive and well-documented method for which adequate data was available. It is based on the assumption that the city's service costs are related to the projected number of employees the new facility would generate. It utilizes coefficients, developed by Rutgers University and the University of North Carolina, which indicate the percentage increase in service costs for individual municipal functions (e.g. public safety, public works) attributable to each new employee. The number of future employees is multiplied by the various coefficients to obtain the percent increase in each service function expenditure which, in turn, is multiplied by the existing per capita dollar expenditure to determine the costs assignable to the proposed development. The advantage of this method of expressing estimated costs as a function of expected 142 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I 1- I I . I -. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I employees is that the number of expected employees is the direct local product of the proposed development. No distinction is made, however, between different socio- economic groups of employees and their differing service demands. It is assumed that the amounts and costs of services demanded by each employee are equivalent to the current per capita average. Such has proven to be the long term tendency. The 1981 cost and revenue estimates are based principally on the 1981 Annual Budget Report of the City of Bothell (presented to the Council on November 3, 1980). Certified assessed valuation statistics were not available prior. to publication of the budget. Consequently, assessed valuation and property tax revenues were estimated by the city; based on the fact that increases in tax revenues are limited to 106% of the highest of the preceding three years' revenue plus new construction (RCW 84.55.10). The figures in the following analysis, therefore, do not reflect actual 1981 tax levies or the county's certified assessed valuation of property in the City of Bothell. This analysis of the city's finances focuses on the five operating funds (current, street, parks, library, and debt service). The following graphics depict the city's expenditures by fund, its sources of revenue, and the respective individual proportions of the totals. Costs The public costs attributable to the proposal were derived through the following sequence. First, 1981 service costs were determined for individual service categories (general government, police, fire, streets, health/welfare, parks, libraries, statutory costs, and debt service). Water and sewer service costs were not considered as these services are not financed by the city's operating funds. In fact, a requirement of the city's water and sewer revenue bonds is that charges for water and sewer service must exceed the cost of providing the service. Second, the per capita costs of each service function were determined by dividing each service function cost by 7,463 (the city's estimated 1981 population). Third, the estimated number of employees of the new facility was multiplied by an expenditure multiplier, which measures the demand generated impact of commercial and industrial activity upon individual categories of per capita municipal expenditures (coefficients were provided by Burchell and Listokin), to determine total percentage increase for each service. Fourth, the percentage increase for each service was multiplied by the per capita dollar expenditure for that service to obtain a per capita dollar increase for each service. Finally, the per capita dollar increase in each service category was multiplied by the existing population to derive the cost increase for each service which would be attributable to the proposed development. The total cost attributable to the development of ZOO,OOO square feet of 143 . '. I . '. . I I I I I I I I I I I I I retail uses, 990,000 square feet of light industrial uses, and 350,000 square feet of office space in the City of Bothell would be $328,839. The exhibit on the following page details the means by which this figure was derived. Revenues The principal sources of revenue generated by the proposed development would be property taxes, sales taxes, utility taxes, license and permit fees, and charges for services. For the sake of simplicity, revenue calculations were limited to these sources. Property tax revenues to the city generated by the project were estimated by multiplying the assessed valuation of the completed development ($87 million, see section on ELEMENTS OF THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT) by the city's 1981 regular and excess levy rate (2.292/$1,000 AV*). Property tax revenues to the school district were estimated to be $243,840 on the basis of a King County estimate that 1981 school district levy rates would be $2.79/$1,000 AV. Local sales tax revenues generated by the proposed retail uses would be approximately $100,000 annually. These were estimated by multiplying the expected gross annual sales per square foot of retail space (using typical data from the Urban Land Institute's "1978 Dollars and Cents of Shopping Centers") by the size of the facility (200,000 square feet) to determine gross additional sales income ($28,000,000); multiplying gross additional sales income by the percentage which represents new business to Bothell (71.496); and then multiplying the product by the local sales tax rate (.005). It was assumed that the proposed office and industrial uses would not generate significant sales tax revenues. Local utility tax revenues would be determined by applying an eight percent tax rate to the expected costs of water, sewer, solid waste, electric, gas, and telephone billings. For example, assuming an all-electric project for the purpose of calculating the utility tax, the City would receive approximately $250,000 annually from the power consump- tion on the site at completion ($78,230,000 KWH x $.41/KWH = $3,129,100 annual electric bill x 896 utility tax). *Note: Includes levy of .3748 for fire station bonds - general city levy is 1.917. Permit fees were estimated to total $217,683 on the basis of the City of Bothell's fee schedule for a commercial/industrial development of 1,540,000 square feet, with an 145 X Exlstin9 COlJITerctal Expend'ture Per Capt ta X Existing Service Catego Expenditure / lliL Multiplier X 1900 . Expend'ture Population General Government $772,431.50 $103.50 .0000065(1900) .01235 $1.28 $ 9,552.64 Po It ce 546,001.00 76.16 .0000655(1900) .12445 9.10 67,913.30 Fire 521,188.50 69.84 .0000655(1900) .12445 8.69 64,853.47 Streets 232,773.00 31. 19 .0000183(1900) .03477 1.08 8,060.04 Health/Welfare 12,410.00 1.66 .0000168(1900) .03192 .05 373.15 Total Cost of Proposed Development Parks 164,165.00 22.00 .0001978(1900) .37582 8.27 61,719.01 by Service CateQory LIbraries 80,966.00 10.85 .0001918(1900) .37582 4.08 30,449.04 General Govermrent $ 12,836.36 ..... Statutory Costs 12,410.00 1.66 .0001537(1900) .29203 .48 3,582.24 Police 84,779.68 ~ 13.500.00 81 .0000726(1900) .13794 .25 0\ Debt Service 1,865.75 Fire 80,898.92 X Existln9 Streets 25,747.35 Industrial Expenditure Per Capita Health/Welfare 970.19 Multlplter X 1650 . Expend'ture Parks 77,316.68 Genera 1 Government .0000026(1650) .00429 $ .44 3,283.72 l tbrades 38,135.93 Po It ce .0000187(1650) .030855 2.26 16,866.38 Statutory Costs 5,447.99 Fire .0000181(1650) .030855 2.15 16,045.45 Debt Service 2,686.68 Streets .0000461(1650) .076065 2.37 17 ,687.31 TOTAl PU8LIC COST OF Health/Welfare .0000279(1650) .046035 .08 597.04 PROPOSEO DEVELOPMENT $328,839.78 Parks .0000577(1650) .095205 2.09 15,591.67 LIbraries . 00D05 77 (1650) .095205 1.03 7,686.89 Statutory Costs .0000900(1650) .1485 .25 865.75 Debt Service .0000366(1650) .06039 .11 820.93 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,- . . I I . . I I I I I . I I I I I I I assessed building valuation of $87 million, and 3,550 employees. Building permit fees were determined to be $217,683 ($433/$100,000 AV + $2.50/additional $1,000 AV). Plan check charges ($141,494) were figured at 6596 of the building permit fee. Rezone application filing fees were determined to be $75; PUD plan review fees were approximated at $30,000. These are collected prior to construction of the project and would help offset the time lag between when services are needed for the project and when the project would begin to generate increased taxes. The sales tax returned to the City (.42596) on the purchase of its property and construction would be approxi- mately $369,750. The annual revenue generated by the proposed development is itemized and totaled in the exhibit below. It was estimated that the proposal would generate $715,141 in revenue to the City of Bothell, exclusive of business and occupational taxes. Annual Revenues Property Taxes to City Utility Taxes Sales Taxes to City Total City Annual Revenues Attributable to Proposed Development Property Taxes to School District Property Taxes to State, County, Port and Hospital District $ 200,141 415,000 100.000 $ 715,141 $ 243,840 $ 443,108 The preceding analysis indicates that the proposed development would have a positive net annual impact of $386,302 ($715,141 annual revenue minus $328,839 annual costs). However, local service costs attributable to the project might initially exceed the revenues generated, due to the lag between the demand for services and collection of tax revenues. The evaluation of the immediate fiscal impact was beyond the scope of this analysis. Despite this limitation, and the other assumptions upon which the analysis was based (see Introduction), the results are a useful means of quickly evaluating the service requirements of the anticipated development, and monitoring the costs of the proposed instant land use decision. The City of Bothell has no formula by which to allocate tax revenues to individual service categories. It is not possible, therefore, to compare revenues to costs for each service function. The analysis showed, however, that the total long-term revenues generated by the proposal would exceed its total servicing costs. Finally, it is important to remember that the net surplus of $386,302 is expressed in purely financial terms. The analysis is not a substitute for the evaluation of non-fiscal or intangible costs and benefits, nor an analysis of cost effectiveness. 147