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Koll North Creek Technical Appendix 1981 r f I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t ~ ~~..~~,~ .Wttt\t .' ". -- .........-. )1~":'dL u~ j~ill""'1 Fr .._-t ItJ)1-1(4( t:-~. @@[fi>)f 1 Co-v~-Wt. crt? ... ~. /'" c.) CITY OF BOTHEll koll business center- bothell ~@@[}mruD@@~ @~~ITU@D~ Wilsey & Ham, Inc., Consultants I ti~ /(~ ~~o ~ 7'1; ~ ,,0 ~ ,"'" O~ W~8~ CITY OF BOTHELL I I 18305' 100st N.E. BOTH ELL. WASHINGTON 9ROII I DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (206) 4Xo- XI52 I June 18, 1981 I I Dear Recipients of the Koll Business Center - Bothell Final E.I.S.: I I 1. In preparation for the final EIS I wrote to Snohomish County regard- ing their comments (Attachment A). Attached to this letter is the exchange of correspondence which did not get into the final EIS but which provides some additional information (Attachment B). I 2. We also inadvertently left out the response to item #13 of the original Snohomish County letter (Attachment C) . I 3. On page 91 of the Final EIS, the graphic incorrectly identified the Quadrant property. A substitute page 91 with a corrected graphic is attached (Attachment D). I 4. Dr. Raedeke's report in the technical appendix does not consider all of the mitigating measures to be used by the Koll Company in develop- ing the site. A memorandum of clarification will be submitted in a subsequent mailing to recipients of the Final EIS. I S. Also enclosed is the Technical Appendix which we have made the deci- sion to circulate to everyone who received the Final EIS. I Sincerely, I I . /L . /~ . -nliC,tY'~/~~ Daniel W. Taylor, Director Community Development DWT/kjr Enclosures I I I I .ti~ ~~ ~~~,I? ~ ,,(J ~ ,"'" 0"" W,.6" ATTACHflliNT A I CITY OF BOTHELL I 18305' IOlsl N.E. BOTH ELL. WASHINGTON 98011 I DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (206) 4Ro - RJ52 I May 20, 1981 I 1 Richard Fowler, Director Department of Community Affairs 4th Floor, County Administration Bldg 3000 Rockefeller Everett, WA 98201 1 Dear Mr. Fowler: 'I SUBJECT: Koll Business Center Draft EIS 1 The City of Bothell recently published and circulated a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the above referenced project, located in Bothell, south of the Snohomish County line. 1 In response to the DEIS we received a letter dated April 9, 1981, from Snoho- mish County Planning Department (copy enclosed), which states at page 3 that Snohomish County's North Creek Plan and Bothell's North Creek Plan are not generally consistent. Further, the general import of the letter is that the proposed project is incompatible with the agricultural preservation policies and numerous other policies of Snohomish County. 1 1 While we concur that there are inconsistencies between the plans I feel there should be some clarification of the following points which would seem to pre- sent a somewhat different perspective than the response to the EIS. I I. While it is acknowledged that Snohomish Co~~ty's North Creek ~~ea Compre- hensive Plan ("County Plan"), does encourage the preservation of prime "upland" agricultural lands within the County Plan area, there are num- erous other written assumptions and policies within the County Plan which recognize the acceptability of the type of development allowed under Bothell's North Creek Plan ("Bothell Plan"). To quote a few excerpts from the County Plan: I I A. INDUSTRIAL LAND USES (PP 37-38 County Plan) I GOAL: Industrial areas should be located and developed in a reasonably attractive manner and contribute to the economic growth and stability of the North Creek Planning Area, as well as the whole County, without degrading its natural or residential living environments. I I I CIIT OF BOTHELL I Richard Fowler May 20, 1981 Page 2 I I POLICIES: 1. An ample number of sites suited for diversity of industrial uses should be identified and reserved in the North Creek Plan- ning Area. 2. The clustering of industrial uses in planned industrial parks in areas adjacent to existing centers of development should be strongly encouraged. 3. Future industrial development should be located where it can take maximum advantage of existing and planned utility systems in order to optimize the cost of providing essential public services. 4. Industries should be located in areas where they will have ade- quate expansion space to meet a,ticipated future needs. S. Industrial development should be required to locate on soils which are suitable for such development. 6. Industrial development, in general, should be served by public utilities and urban services with possible exceptions to be made for industrial uses of a rural or non-intense nature that: a) must be located near raw materials or markets; and b) are not highly labor intensive. 7. Industrial areas should be located where direct access can be provided to regional ground transportation systa~s including highways and railroads. Location of these areas near airports is also desirable, but not essential. 8. Industrial areas should be located so that they are readily acces- sible from residential areas, but are functionally separate and compatible. 9. Industrial development should occur in a manner which provides the public and government adequate notice to review the design of the development to insure its impacts are internalized to the greatest extent possible. 10. Adequate buffers of landscaping, compatible-transitional land use and open space should be utilized to protect surrounding land areas from the adverse effects of industrial development. Particu- lar attention should be given to protecting residential areas, parks and other public-institutional land uses. ll. Existing and proposed industrial areas should be protected from encroachment by incompatible, non-industrial activities. I I I I I I I I I I I I B. All other industrial development would occur in business parks which would have approved site plans controlling the type and nature of the activity. Business Park development is to be in accordance with a new Business Park zoning category currently being developed by the County Planning Department. If for some reason the Business Park zone is not adopted, these various centers would be developed on a contract'rezone basis with planned development concepts and perfor- mance contracts to address hours of operation, signing, buffers, in- gress, egress siting of buildings and parking areas and other appro- priate aspects of such development. (P 39, County Plan) I I I I I I 1 I 1 I' 1 1 I 1 I I I I I 1 I I Richard May 20, Page 3 Fowler 1981 C. Junction of SR 527 and Interstate 405. About 240 acres have been Shown in this location for Business Park development; 205 acres are on the west side of SR 527 and 35 acres on the east side. Access on the west side of SR 527 is to be either on SR 527 or oriented toward 209th St. S.W. No access is to be taken on 9th Avenue S.E., as that will remain a residentially developed street. The Business Park classified lands on the east side of SR 527 would have to access on SR 527 and not onto 228th St. S.E., which is viewed to be a substandard arterial. (P39, County Plan) D. Table s.4A (P 49, County Plan) States the following required criteria for industrial development: Well drained, no steep slopes, water and sewer, storm drainage, major highway and arterial access. These are requirements of Bothell's Plan as well. All of the above referenced those of the Bothell Plan. April 9 letter. items reflect policies very similar to Yet they were not mentioned in the County's II. None of the County Property abutting the subject property under the Bothell Plan area is designated agricultural under the County Plan. The majority is designated Watershed Site sensitive or suburban. The former allows a density of one dwelling unit per 2.2 acres. These are not preserved for agriculture; they are low density residential, which quite rightly require protection and buffering from unplanned and unregulated development. The Bothell Plan requires such planning and buffering, as does the County Plan which states, "Industrial lands can be located within the planning area, providing they can internalize their potential impact on neighboring areas. Such measures as visual and vegetation buffers, site clearing restrictions, access limitations, and operation requirements, may be employed to effectively attenuate the impact of industrial development on surrounding areas." Such measures are an integral part of Bothell's Plan. (P IS; County Plan) III. There is in fact no agricultural classification under the North Creek Plan, such as under a number of the other Snohomish County area plans. Those other agricultural classifications set maximum density limits at one dwelling unit per ten acres. No classification approaches that restric- tion on density in the County North Creek Plan. In fact, the Rural classi- fication, (the most restrictive under the North Creek Plan), allows a density of one dwelling unit per 2.2 acres. I CIIT OF BOTHELL I Richard Fowler May 20, 1981 Page 4 I I IV. The April 9 letter makes many references to the protection of North Creek. North Creek is of paramount concern to Bothell as well. While many of the comments require a technical response, it should be clarified that the County Plan provides for Business Park zoning in an area through which North Creek runs (at the interchange of 527 and 405), with a buffer desig- nation along the creek bed. The County Plan requirements for stream pro- tection are very similar to Bothell's. .. I I I In summary, although we appreciate and will make specific response to the technical comments received in the April 9 letter, clarification of the above referenced items would be helpful in formulating responses. While there are diss~~la=ities in the Plans, there are many more similarities. Wnether or not the Koll project is successful we do sit right on your border and may end up being part of Snohomish County. Development pressure is not going to go away and I feel it is important that Bothell and Snohomish County work together to solve our mutual problems. I I Thank you for your attention to this issue. I D:]0. -, n.o'" w. T."O~'O'", Community Deve~~~~~ I DWT/kjr I Enclosure , I cc: Willis Tucker George Sherwin Steve Rice Bill Derry I I I I I I . ATTACHMENT B I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I SNOHOMISH COUNTY OFFICE of COMMUNITY PLANNING COUNTY ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. EVERETT, WASHINGTON 9B201 . (2061 259,9311 George F. Sherwin, Jr., Director June 1, 1981 Daniel 11. Taylor, Director Dept. of Community Development City of Bothell 18305 - 101st H.E. Bothell, WA 98011 Dear lir. Taylor: This letter is intended to clarify our previous response to the Roll Business Center Draft EIS (our letter dated fipril 9, 1981). I conclude from your letter (dated Nay 20, 1981) that the two issues needing clarification are the protection of north Creek and the inconsistency between SnohoQish County's l~rth Creek area plan (north Creek plan) and Bothell's north Creek Valley Planning Area (valley plan) . 1. Plan Inconsistency Let me first put our previous DEIS comments into perspective. The land use section of our letter was written in response to two DEIS statements which are, in our opinion, not fully correct. Your DEIS states: "Although the (County's) North Creek Plan encourages the retention of viable agricultural enterprises, it also establishes policies for conversion to urban uses when farming is no longer economically feasible." (p. 56) In our previous letter, we agreed with the first part of this statement but pointed out that the conprehensive plan text does not substantiate the second part. We quoted the agricultural goal and policies of the I!orth Creek plan aml repeat the three poliCies IIhich apply directly to the property north of Roll Business Center: "2. Encourage the continuance of agricultural pursuits in areas where each activity has traditionally taken place. 3. Urban and other types of pre-emptive developnent should be directed away from prime or other highly prOductive agricultural lands. 4. Mo public or private action should be taken which would substantially impair or diminish the present uses, values, or enjoyments of agricultural land in the north Creek Area." I . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I DISCUSSIon "...The recommendation of this plan is not just to preserve the farming enterprises, as they may change depending on market conditions, but it is one of protecting, if possible, a limited resource... which cannot be replaced in upland areas without great cost to society. Since most of the areas now intensively farmed are located in the north Creek drainageway and also in the Thomas Lake area, they are designated Watershed-Site Sensitive areas, which is a rural kind of environment that will allow agricultural activity to occur without an immediate threat of land use conversion." (North Creek Area Comprehensive Plan, p. 26) The main thrust of these policies and plan designation is the protection of prime soils and agricultural activity. It does not "establish policies for conversion ,to urban uses" even though the north Creek plan does not contain an agricultural classificatin. The agricultural classification in Snohomish County is applied to large, contiguous farm lands primarily in the Snohomish and Stillaguamish River floodplains and not to the relatively small scale farming operations in the North Creek valley. The ColI DEIS quotes a set of goals, objectives and policies adopted by the City of Bothell for development of the valley floor including land in Snohomish County. The ColI Business Center is presented as being consistent with those goals. However, if these same goals and policies were implemented with a similar development on land immediately north of the county line, they would not be consistent with the Snohomish County poliCies quoted above. This fact elicited our cor.lment in response to this DE IS statement: "In summary, Bothell's adopted policies guiding future development of the subject site are generally consistent with policies affecting adjacent land within Snohomish County..." (Roll DEIS, p. 57). An additional issue raised in our CODnents is the difference between land uses permitted by the two comprehensive plans. Bothell's valley plan encourages non-polluting manufacturing bUSiness-prOfessional uses, educational facilities, recreational facilities, non-freeway oriented pUblic accommodations, retail outlets, hospitals, clinics, medical- profeSSional buildings and multi-family residential uses. The valley plan prohibits single family and mobile home residential uses on the valley floor. In contrast, Snohomish County allows only Single-family and agricultural uses on the valley floor due north of the county line. Therefore, we have difficulties finding the two plans generally consistent in that area of Snohomish County where they both apply. This is l I " il I ' I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II . .' not a judgment as to which of the two plans is the better, but merely a statement of difference between the two. Your quotations of industrial land use policies ~r6m the rlorth Creek plan are all correct. These policies were:used in the plan preparation process to identify and designate suitable industrial sites in the North Creek planning area. However, they cannot be used to justify industrial or business park sites on land that is currently designated Residential, Rural or Watershed-Site Sensitive on the comprehensive plan unless the plan were subjected to a plan amendment process which reanalyzed alternative suitable sites. 2. Protection of North Creek Our comments, questions, and requests for clarification on the issue of water resources and quality were not meant to imply that Bothell is less concerned about rlorth Creek than Snohomish County. As you point out, there are several business park sites along North Creek within Snohomish County. You can be assured that we have applied close scrutiny to development proposals on those sites in recognition of Snohomish County and Bothell's mutual interest in drainage issues. In summary, our DEIS comments should not be considered judgments on the merits of the proposed ColI Business Center. Rather, we have limited our responses to the interpretation of Snohomish County's plan; to population, traffic and utility impacts on SnohomishCounty; to technical comments on the issue of water resources and quality; and to legal comments on the discussion of alternatives. I agree fully with you that Bothell and Snohomish County will have to work together to solve problems which may arise. Snohomish County has indicated through its elected officials and staff, its desire and willingness to cooperate with the City of Bothell. We will continue to be available for further discussion. ' Sincerely, A::;F~/7J:::J) ) George F. Sherwin, Jr., P2rector GFS:cs cc: Dick Fowler, Director, DCA Judith M. Runstad Foster, Pepper & Riviera llll - 3rd Ave. Bldg. Seattle, WA 98101 I ATTACHMENT C The Realesearch study referenced under Elements of the Economic Envi- ronment in the Draft EIS thoroughly studied available alternative industrial sites from Redmond to Paine Field. However, the City of Bothell's jurisdiction is limited to the City boundaries. Develop- ment at sites outside of the City would not accomplish the objectives relating to the valley floor in the City's Plan for the North Creek Valley such as: Objective 2, to upgrade North Creek as a fisheries resource. Objective 3, to make a positive contribution to housing, local employ- ment and tax base. Objective 4, to contribute to open space needs. Objective 5, to help meet recreational needs of the Northshore area. Areas within or adjacent to the City's jurisdiction that would be suitable for the type and scale of development proposed are limited to the North Creek Valley. These sites are addressed in the Draft EIS. See revised Alternatives section in the Final EIS. I I I j I I j I I I I I I I I I I I I ATTACHMENT D ~\r-====~=il \\\u ~ ~ I I ij o ~ 0>1: i ~ n =sc:s........__ bj :;, ~ Potential Arterial System N.6. If Sit Holly Hills BOTHEll Il J;l. Figure 20 shows traffic assigned to the potential new arterial system without the new J;l. grade-separa'ted crossings. With ful1 development of the North Creek Val1ey beyond the J;l. Kol1 proposal, the new arterial system without additional arterials crossing the J;l. freeways, the reconfigured interchange and the widening of NE 195th Street to seven lanes between 1-405 and the new Kol1/Quadrant projects, levels of service on NE 195th J;l. will move just into the "F" range. With the ride-sharing strategies discussed above, levels of service could rise to "D" or "E" at the most critical intersections. With added arterial~ crossing 1-405, traffic on NE 195th could be further relieved and accom- ~ modated at acceptable levels of service; perhaps 25 to 30 percent of the traffic using the freeway interchanges'would be relocated to the new arterials crossing the freeways, J;l. not at interchanges. As can be seen in Figure 20, if ful1 val1ey development occurs without additional grade ~ separated crossings of the 1-405 and SR 522, 554 vehicles per hour would travel north to ~ Snohomish County, and would disperse onto many of the local roads between SR 9 and J;l. SR 527 south of SE 228th Street. Approximately 250 cars per hour wil1 be attracted to - 91 - I I I I I I I l i I f I I I I I I I I Appendix A. Appendix B. Appendix C. Appendix D. Appendix E. Appendix F. Appendix G. Appendix H. TECHNICAL APPENDIX TABLE OF CONTENTS Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . Site Coverage Calculations . . . . . . Fiscal Impacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail Market Impact Analysis. . . . . . Letters and Data Related to Agricultural Feasibility Comprehensive Plan Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . Snohomish County North Creek Plan. . . . . . . . King County Northshore Revised Community Plan. . . King County General Development Guide (and policies) North Creek Relocation, Supplementary Information Wildlife Habitat Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1 5 13 19 47 69 70 71 72 79 139 DATE DUE I I I I I I I I I I I I, t I I I I I I Appendix A NOISE General Description of Noise Noise is any sound which is undesirable because it interferes with speech and hearing or is otherwise annoying (the term "environmental noise", as used by the Environmental Protection Agency, means the intensity, duration and character of sound from all sources). Noise is a physical phenomenon created primarily from mechanical vibration. Noise occurs in a predictable fashion where free sound radiation is governed with minor variance by an inverse relationship (as the distance from the source increases, the sound is reduced) and its transmission is determined by the physical properties of the transmitting medium (usually air). Man's response to noise is determined by the sound level emanating from the source of noise and the frequency spectrum of the sound. Noise intensity represents the level of sound which is weighted in accordance to the apparent loudness perceived by an average human observer. This number is expressed in "A"-weighted decibels and is written as dBA. This descriptor is the one generally accepted as having the best correlation with human judgements of loudness. Each increase of 10 dBA in the noise level is subjectively judged as a approximate doubling of loudness. Noise intensity covers such a broad range that it is measured logarithmically and noise levels usually represent a statistical average for a given period of time. Since noise is rarely steady or constant for long periods, average noise levels do not readily account for very high noise levels of very short duration. For example, a long-term average of a 60 decibel (dBA) sound level over a 24-hour period might include peak sound levels of 110 dBA, but such an event might be less than one second in duration. This fluctuating noise can be described statistically by noise levels exceeded for given percentages of time during a prescribed time period. The commonly used statistical levels are L90, L,O' and LIO' for which the number in the subscript indicates the percentage of time that the given level is exceeded. The L90 is indicativ: of background noise in the absence of local noise events. The L.50 is the median or "average" sound level exceeded .50 percent rf the time. The LID is usually indicative of maximum noise from recurring events such as traffic during peak volumes. -/- The total noise exposure for a prescribed time period is given by the Leq, or equivalent level, which is the dBA level of a constant sound having the amount of acoustical energy contained in the time-varyin~ measured noise. The Ldn, or day-night sound level, is the Leq over 24 hours with a 10 dBA weighting applied to the nighttime 00:00 PM to 7:00 AM) noise. The Ldn environmental noise descriptor is preferred by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The criteria used for evaluation of noise impacts are as follows: Re~ulations and Guidelines for Environmental Impact Statements The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Noise Guidelines for Environmental Impact Statements identify levels which can be used to evaluate noise impacts. These levels are not to be construed as standards. The document states that "until more definitive guidelines are established for various types of projects, EPA pers~nnel will be guided by the general considerations" indicated below for residential areas: Ldn 55 dBA Levels are generally acceptable; no noise impact is generally associated with these levels. Ldn 55-65 dBA Adverse noise impacts exist; lowest noise level possible should be strived for. Ldn 65-70 dBA Significant adverse noise impacts exist; allowable only in unusual cases where lower levels are clearly demonstrated not to be possible. Ldn 70 dBA Levels have unacceptable public health and welfare impacts. The guidelines classify noise increases over the present ambient as follows: 0-5 dBA slight impact 5-10 dBA significant impact over 10 dBA very serious impact The guidelines also specify the information that is needed to evaluate noise impacts and the abatement measures that should be considered if abatement is required. The Washington State Department of Ecology (WAC 173-60) has also specified reg'lla- tions relating to maximum environmental noise levels. They have classified various areas or zones and established maximum permissible noise levels. -2- I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I, I I I I I I I I I - I These "EDNA's" (Environmental Designation for Noise Abatement) are classified as: a) Residential area - Class A EDNA b) Commercial areas - Class B EDNA c) Industrial areas - Class C EDNA The maximum permissible noise levels for these zones are shown below. EDNA OF NOISE SOURCE NOISE LIMIT A nONS ' EDNA OF RECEIVING PROPERTY CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 60 dBA 65 70 CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 55 dBA 57 60 57 dBA 60 65 Between the hours of 10:00 PM and 7:00 AM, the noise limitations of the above table shall be reduced by 10 dBA for receiving property within Class A EDNA's. These noise levels may be exceeded on the receiving property by 15 dBA for 1.5 minutes, 10 dBA for 5 minutes, 5 dBA for 15 minutes for anyone hour, day or night. The limitations suggested by the State are approximately equivalent to the Ldn levels indicated by the EPA in residential areas. Motor vehicle noise is controlled under a different standard (WAC 173-62). Because the use of motor vehicles would regularly violate the maximum permissible levels in the EDNA's, additional regulations have been established to cover this category. The following standard has been promulgated by the State of Washington control the noise levels from motor vehicles: "No person shall operate any motor vehicle upon any public highway or any combination of such vehicles under any condi- tions or grade, load, acceleration or deceleration in such a manner as to exceed the following maximum ,permissible sound levels for the category of vehicle, as measured at a distance of 50 feet from the center of the lane of travel within the speed limits specified, under procedures established by the State Commission on Equipment". The maximum permissible sound levels referred to are shown below. Other conditions on motor vehicle noise are also established, but relate primarily to the occurrence of noise from specific activity. -.3- MOTOR VEHICLE NOISE PERFORMANCE ST ANOAROS VEHICLE CA TEGOR Y 35 MPH OR LESS OVER 35 MPH Motor vehicles over 10,000 Ibs. GVWR * or GCWR ** 86 dBA 90 dBA Motorcycles 80 84 80 All other motor vehicles 75 *GVWR - Gross Vehicle Weight Rating **GCWR - Gross Combination Weight Rating -4- MANUFACTURED AFTER 1975 86 dBA I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I a I 83 80 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I APPENDIX 8 Site Coverage Calculations (Building Floor Area Calculations for the Proposal and Five Alternatives) The proposed project was planned to be in general conformance with the Bothell Codes and to be economically feasible. Five alternatives were then identified to provide a range of development intensities and land uses allowable under the Bothell Codes. The impacts of these alternatives are assessed in the AL TERNA TIVES to the proposal section of this document. The same assumptions and process were used to determine the scale of each alternative. The detailed calculations to determine gross square feet of building floor space by type of use (retail, office, industrial) for the proposal and the five alternatives are presented on the following pages. The steps in the process were as follows: 1. Identify a probable mix of uses. Based on the sponsor's estimate of market demand, a mixture of land-use types is proposed: Commercial/Retail Office Light Industr ial 1996 of land area 2496 5796 2. Identify common open space and public rights-of-way. For the proposal, these total 35 acres (see site plan). 3. Calculate total salable area. Total site acreage is 140 acres minus 35 acres . (open space plus rights-of-way) to equal 105 acres salable area. 4. Calculate allowable impervious surface coverage assuming full bonus allow- ances have been earned. Up to 5096 of the total site acreage is allowed for commercial/retail and office uses. This would result in 70 acres of impervious surface on the site. Up to 6096 of the total site acreage is allowed for certain types of clean, light industr ial uses. This would result in 84 acres of impervious surface. Seventy acres (50% total impervious surface) is 67% of 105 acres (salable area). Eighty-four acres (6096 total impervious surface) is 80% of 105 acres (salable area). -$- 5. Apply to the proposed project. Commercial/Retail (Based on 50% impervious surface) Nineteen percent of salable area is commercial/retail (105 acres) (19%) = 20 acres 20 acres = 871,200 square feet (s.f.) Multiply 871,200 s.f. of commercial/retail salable area by allowable impervious surface (50% of total, 6796 of salable area). (871,200 s.f.) (67%) = 583,704 s.f. Maximum allowable impervious surface under commercial/retail = 583,704 s.f. The total building floor area proposed for commercial/retail uses is 200,000 s.f. The parking requirements (per Bothell Codes) are one parking space per 200 s.f. of building floor area for most retail uses. Thus 1,000 parking spaces are required for the proposed commercial/retail uses. Multiply 1,000 spaces by 375 s.f. per space (this allows for parking space plus circulation to achieve total area of parking). (1,000 spaces) (375 s.f.) = 375,000 s.f. parking Add building area 200,000 s.f., to parking area, 375,000 s.f. to obtain approximate total impervious surface proposed for commercial/retail uses: (200,000 s.f. buildings) + <375,000 s.f. parking) = 575,000 s.f. impervious surface proposed. The total impervious surface proposed is slightly less than the maximum allowable for commercial/retail uses. Thus it approximates the probable maximum development condition. Office (Based on 50% impervious surface) Twenty-four percent of salable area is office (105 acres) (24%) = 25 acres 25 acres = 1,089,000 s.f. Multiply 1,089,000 s.f. of office salable area by allowable impervious surface (5096 of total, 67% of s liable area): (1,089,000 s.f.) (6796) = 729,630 s.f. Maximum allowable impervious surface under office use = 729.630 s.f. The total building floor area proposed for office use is 350,000 s.f. This would be constructed in a five-story building. Thus, the impervious surface coverage of the buildings would total 70,000 s.f. -6- I ,I I I I I I I' I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . The Bothell parking requirements are one parking space per 200 s.f. of building floor area. Thus, 1,7.50 parking spaces are required for the proposed office uses. Multiply 1,7.50 spaces by 37.5 s.f. per space to obtain total impervious surface of the parking and circulation areas, 6.56,2.50 s.!. Add the building footprint, 70,000 s.f., to the parkin~ area 6.56,2.50 s.f. to obtain the .. ' approximate total impervious surface proposed for office use: (70,000 s.f. buildings) + (6.56,2.50 s.f. of parking) = 726,2.50 s.f. impervious surface proposed. . ... The total impervious surface proposed for office use is slightly less than the maximum allowable for office uses. Thus it approximates the probable maximum development condition. Light Industrial The sponsor has estimated that roughly half of the proposed light industrial uses would qualify for the 10% bonus in impervious surface allowable under the Bothell Codes for clean, light industrial uses. Therefore, these calculations are based on the assumption that half of the light industrial area would be developed at .50% and half at 60% impervious surface. Fifty-seven percent of salable area is light industrial: (10.5 acres) (.57%) = 60 acres 60 acres = 2,613,600 s.f. Multiply 2,613,600 s.f. of salable light industrial land by allowable impervious surface: a) (Yz at .50% of total, 67% of salable area) Yz (2,613,600 s.f.) (67%) = 87.5,.5.56 s.f. Maximum allowable impervious surface under .50% coverage = 87.5,.5.56 s.f. The total building area proposed for light industrial use at .50% impervious surface is 4.50,000 s.f. The sponsor has proposed providing one parkin~ space per 400 s.f. of light industrial building space. This substantially exceeds the City Code requirements and would result in 1,12.5 parking spaces for the light industrial developed at .50% impervious surface. Multiply 1,12.5 parking spaces by 37.5 s.f. per space to achieve total area of parking and circulation. J (1,12.5 spaces) (37.5 s.f.) = 421,87.5 s.f. Add building area, 4.50,000 s.f. to parking area 421,87.5 s.f. to obtain approximate total impervious surface proposed for light industrial developed at .50% total impervious surface: -7- (4'0,000 s.f. buildings) + (421,875 s.f. parking) = 871,87' s.f. impervious surface proposed b) (~ at 60% of total, 8096 of salable area) ~ (2,613,600 s.f.) (8096) = 1,04',440 s.f. The maximum allowable impervious surface for the proposed light industrial use developed under 6096 impervious surface is 1,04',440 s.f. The total building area proposed for light industrial use at 6096 impervious surface is '40,000 s.f. One parking space per 400 s.f. of light industrial building area as proposed would result in 1,3'0 parking spaces. Multiply 1,3'0 parking spaces by 375 s.f. per space to achieve total area of parking and circulation: 0,3'0 spaces) (37' s.f.) = '06,2'0 s.f. Add building area, '40,000 s.f. to parking area, '06,2'0 s.f., to obtain approximate total impervious surface proposed for light industrial developed at 6096 total impervious surface: ('40,000 s.f. buildings) + ('06,2'0 s.f. parkin!1;) = 1,046,2'0 s.f. proposed cl Calculate total light industrial proposed Light Industrial Impervious Surface Coverage ~ at '096 ~ at 6096 Total allowable impervious surface coverage building floor space proposed parking and circulation proposed impervious surface 871,87' s.f. 1,046,2'0 s.f. 1,918,12' s.f. The total building area plus parking and circulation area proposed for light industr ial is slightly less than the allowable impervious surface coverage. Thus it approximates the probable maximum development condition. 87',556 s.f. 1,04',440 s.f. 1,920,996 s.f. 4'0,000 421,87' s.f. s.f. '40,000 '06,2'0 s.f. s.f. 990,000 928,12' s.f. s.f. 6. Apply process to alternatives. To provide a method for systematic and consistent comparison of alternatives to the proposal, the percentage of the proposed building floor area of the allowable impervious -8- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I surface for each use type was used. This results in the following percentages: Type of Use Commercial/Retail Office Light Industrial Floor Area Allowable Percentage Proposed Impervious Surface 200,000 s.f. 583,704 s.f. 34.3% 350,000 s.f. 729,630 s.f. 48% 990,000 s.f. 1,920,996 s.f. 51.5% The alternatives considered are the following: Alternative I - is a mixture of uses comparable to the proposal but based on a maximum of 27% impervious surface. With this low impervious surface coverage, there would be no incentive for the sponsor to provide common open space. Thus, the entire 140-acre site is treated as salable area. The comparison of uses results in the following: Use Type % of Salable Area Acres Square Feet - Commercial/Retail 19% 27 acres 1,176,120 Office 24% 33 acres 1,437,480 Light Industrial 57% 80 acres 3,484,800 100% 140 acres 6,098,400 s.f. Multiply these gross areas of use by the 27% allowable impervious surface to otain allowable impervious surface for each use (e.g. 1,176,120 s.f. commercial/retail x 27%). Use Type Commercial/Retail Office Light Industr ial Allowable Impervious Surface 317,522 s.f. 388,120 s.f. 940,896 s.f. To obtain comparable buildiilg areas, ages of building floor area. Use Type Commercial/Retail Office Light Industrial multiply these areas by the appropr iate percent- Building Floor Area % of Impervious Surface 34.3% 48% 51.5% Allowable Building Floor Area 108,910 s.f. 186,298 s.!. 484,561 s.f. Alternative II - is a mixture of uses comparable to the proposal but based on a maximum of 40% impervious surface coverage. It is assumed that common open space would be required to qualify for the higher impervious surface coverage. Thus, the calculations are based on 105 acres of salable area. -;)- Use Type 96 of Salable Area Acres Square Feet Commercial/Retail 1996 20 acres 871,200 s.f. Office 2496 25 acres 1,089,000 s.f. Light Industrial 57% 60 acres 2,613,000 s.f. 100% 105 acres salable area Commercial/Retail 871,200 s.f. x 53.396 impervious surface = 464,349 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 34.396 of impervious surface = 159,27,5 s,f. building floor area Office 1,089,000 s.f. x 53.396 impervious surface = 580,437 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 4896 of impervious surface = 278,610 s.f. building floor area Li!?;ht Industry 2,613,000 s.f. x 53.396 impervious surface = 1,392,729 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 51.596 of impervious surface = 717,255 s.f. building floor area Alternative In - is all light industrial use developed at 6096 impervious surface coverage. It is assumed that common open space would be required to qualify for this higher impervious surface coverage. Thus, the calculations are based on 105 acres of salable area. Light Industrial 105 acres = 4,573,800 s.f. 105 acres x 8096 = 84 acres maximum impervious surface 84 acres = 60% of 140 acres or 60% impervious surface Li!?;ht Industr ial 4,573,800 s.f. x 80% impervious surface = 3,659,040 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 51.596 of impervious surface = 1,884,406 s.f. building floor area Alternative IV - is all commercial/retail use developed at 2796 impervious surface coverage. With this low impervious surface coverage, there would be no incentive for the sponsor to provide common open space. Thus, the entire 140-acre site is treated as salable area. Commercial/Retail 140 acres = 6,098,400 s.f. Commercial/Retail 6,098,400 s.f. x 2796 impervious surface = 1,646,568 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 34.39> of impervious surface = 564,773 s.f. building floor area -/0 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I - I I I I I I I I I . Alternative V - is all commercial/retail use developed at 50% impervious surface coverage. It is assumed that common open space would be required to qualify for this higher impervious surface coverage. Thus, the calculations are based on 105 acres of salable area. Commercial/Retail 105 acres = 4,573,800 s.f. 105 acres x 66.6% = 70 acres maximum impervious surface 70 acres = 50% of 140 acres or 50% impervious surface coverage Commercial/Retail 4,573,800 s.f. x 66.6% impervious surface = 3,046,151 s.f. maximum impervious surface Buildings: 34.3% of impervious surface = 1,044,830 s.f. building floor area -/1- I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I I I I , APPENDIX C Fiscal Impacts This section analyzes the estimated costs and revenues associated with the proposed development. It projects the direct costs incurred by the City of Bothell and the immediate revenues which would be generated by the commercial and industrial development of the subject property. Indirect impacts (such as those attributable to the effect of the proposal on residential development and related service needs and/or revenues) are not considered. Such secondary impacts are nearly impossible to predict, and/or separate from primary impacts. The analysis, furthermore, is concerned solely with the costs and revenues of the proposal to the city. The private revenues and costs of public actions (e.g. land dedication as a condition of land use approval, special assessments on real property) are not included, nor are the costs and revenues flowing to utilities, special districts, the county, regional authorities, or the state. The costs and revenues examined in the analysis are expressed in 1981 dollars. The fiscal impacts of the proposal, therefore, are considered in terms of the costs and revenues the facility would generate if it were completed and operating in 1981. Although it is recognized that the development of the site would occur over several years, and that inflation would increase costs and revenues, it is assumed that the relative long-term relationship of costs and revenues would not change dramatically over time. The analysis is not useful to evaluate the immediate fiscal impact of the proposal, however, because of the lag between the time the new development would begin to require public services and the time the city would begin to receive the revenues generated by the project. The method used to determine the servicing costs of the proposal is referred to as the Employment Anticipation Method by Burchell and Listokin. It is the most comprehen- sive and well-documented method for which adequate data was available. It is based on the assumption that the city's service costs are related to the projected number of employees the new facility would generate. It utilizes coefficients, developed by Rutgers University and the University of North Carolina, w.hich indicate the percentage increase in service costs for individual municipal functions (e.g. public safety, public works) attributable to each new employee. The number of future employees is multiplied by the various coefficients to obtain the percent increase in each service function expenditure which, in turn, is multiplied by the existing p~r capita dollar expenditure to determine the costs assignable to the proposed development. The advantage of this method of expressing estimated costs as a function of expected - '3- employees is that the number of expected employees is the direct local product of the proposed development. No distinction is made, however, between different socio- economic groups of employees and their differinl!: service demands. It is assumed that the amounts and costs of services demanded by each employee are equivalent to the current per capita average. Such has proven to be the long term tendency. The 1981 cost and revenue estimates are based principally on the 1981 Annual Budget Report of the City of Bothell (presented to the Council on November 3, 1980). Certified assessed valuation statistics were not available prior to publication of the budget. Consequently, assessed valuation and property tax revenues were estimated by the city, based on the fact that increases in tax revenues are limited to 10696 of the highest of the preceding three years' revenue plus new construction (RCW 84.55.10). The figures in the following analysis, therefore, do not reflect actual 198 I tax levies or the county's certified assessed valuation of property in the City of Bothell. This analysis of the city's finances focuses on the five operating funds (current, street, parks, library, and debt service). The followinl( graphics depict the city's expenditures by fund, its sources of revenue, and the respective individual proportions of the totals. Costs The public costs attributable to the proposal were derived through the following sequence. First, 1981 service costs were determined for individual service categories (general government, police, fire, streets, health/welfare, parks, libraries, statutory costs, and debt service). Water and sewer service costs were not considered as these services are not financed by the city's operating funds. In fact, a requirement of the city's water and sewer revenue bonds is that charges for water and sewer service must exceed the cost of providing the service. Second, the per capita costs of each service function were determined by dividing each service function cost by 7,463 (the city'S estimated 1981 population). Third, the estimated number of employees of the new facility was multiplied by an expenditure multiplier, which measures the demand l!:enerated impact of commercial and industrial activity upon individual categories of per capita municipal expenditures (coefficients were provided by Burchell and Listokin), to determine total percentage increase for each service. Fourth, the percentage increase for each service was multiplied by the per capita dollar expenditure for that service to obtain a per capita dollar increase for each service. Finally, the per capita dollar increase in each service category was multiplied by the existing population to derive the cost increase for each service which would be attributable to the proposed development. The total cost attributable to the development of 200,000 square feet of -/4- I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I retail uses, 990,000 square feet of light industrial uses, and 350,000 square feet of ~ office space in the City of Bothell would be $313,735. The exhibit on the following page details the means by which this figure was derived. Revenues The principal sources of revenue generated by the proposed development would be property taxes, sales taxes, utility taxes, license and permit fees, and charges for services. For the sake of simplicity, revenue calculations were limited to these sources. Property tax revenues to the city generated by the project were estimated by multiplying the assessed valuation of the compl~ted development ($87 million, see section on ELEMENTS OF THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT) by.the city's 1981 regular and excess levy rllte (2.292/$1,000 AV*). Property tax revenues to the school district were estimated to be $2~3,8~0 on the basis of a King County estimate that 1981 school district levy rates would be $2.79/$1,000 AV. Local sales tax revenues generated by the proposed retail uses would be approximately $100,000 annually. These were estimated by multiplying the expected gross annual sales per square foot of retail space (usinl!: typical data from the Urban Land Institute's "1978 Dollars and Cents of Shopping Centers") by the size of the facility (200,000 square feet) to determine gross additional sales income ($28,000,000); multiplying gross additional sales income by the percentage which represents new business to Bothell (71.~%); and then multiplying the product by the local sales tax rate (.005). It was assumed that the proposed office and industrial uses would not generate significant sales tax revenues. Local utility tax revenues would be determined by applying an eight percent tax rate to the expected costs of water, sewer, solid waste, electr ic, gas, and telephone billings. For example, assuming an all-electric project for the purpose of calculating the utility ~ tax, the City would receive approximately $232,000 annually from the power consump- Iil tion on the site at completion (78,230,000 KWH x $0.037/KWH = S2,89~,510 annual electric bill x 8% utility tax). *Note: Includes levy of .37~8 for fire station bonds - general city levy is 1.917. Permit fees were estimated to total $217,683 on the basis of the City of Bothell's fee schedule for a commercial/industrial development of 1,5~0,000 square feet, with an - /6- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - X Existing Commercial Expenditure Per CapIto X Existtng Service Cateqor'Y ExpendIture / ~ MultIplier X 1900 . Expendt ture Populatton General Government $772,431.50 $103.50 .0000065(1900) .01235 $1.28 $ 9,552.64 Pollee 546,007.00 76.16 .0000655(1900) .12445 9.10 67,913.30 fIre 521,188.50 69.84 .0000655(1900) .12445 8.69 64,853.47 Streets 232,773.00 31.19 .0000183(1900) .03477 1.08 8,060.04 Health/Wel fore 12,410.00 1.66 .0000168(1900) .03192 .05 373.15 Total Cost of Proposed Development Parks 164,165.00 22.00 .0001978(1900) .37582 8.27 61,719.01 by Service CateQory LIbraries 80,966.00 10.85 .0001978(1900) .37582 4.08 30,449.04 General Government $ 12,239.32 Statutory Costs 12.410.00 .66 .0001537(1900) .29203 .48 3,582.24 Pollee 81,933.74 Debt ServIce 13,500.00 81 .0000726(1900) .13794 .25 1,865.75 fire 77 ,689.83 X Existing Streets 22,239.74 I Industrial Expenditure Per Capita Health/Welfare 820.93 MultiplIer X 1650 . ExpendIture -... Parks 74,256.85 '-l General Government . 0~0026 (1320) .00343 4 .36 2,686.68 LIbrarIes 36,643.33 , Pollee .0000187(1320) .024684 .88 14,030.44 Statutory Costs 5,373.36 fire .0000187(1320) .024684 .72 12,836.36 Debt Service 2,537.42 Streets .0000461(1320) .060852 .90 14,179.70 TOTAl PUBLIC COST OF Health/Welfare .0000279(1320) .036828 .06 447.78 PROPOSEO OEVELOPMENT $313 ,734.52 Parks .0000577(1320) .076164 .68 2,537.84 LIbraries .0000577(1320) .076164 .83 6,194.29 5tatutory Costs .0000900(1320) .1188 ..24 1,791.12 Debt ServIce .0000366(1320) .048312 .09 671.67 ~ assessed building valuation of $87 million, and 3,220 employees. Building permit fees were determined to be $217,683 ($~33/$100,000 AV + $2.50/additional $1,000 AV). Plan check charges ($1~1,~9~) were figured at 65% of the building permit fee. Rezone application filing fees were determined to be $75; PUD plan review fees were approximated at $30,000. These are collected prior to construction of the project and would help offset the time lag between when services are needed for the project and when the project would begin to generate increased taxes. The sales tax returned to the City (.~25%) on the purchase of its property and construction would be approxi- mately $369,750. The annual revenue generated by the proposed development is itemized and totalecl in ~ the exhibit below. It was estimated that the proposal would generate $697,1~1 in revenue to the City of Bothell, exclusive of business and occupational taxes. Annual Revenues Property Taxes to City ~ Utility Taxes Sales Taxes to City Total City Annual Revenues Attributable Iil to Proposed Development Property Taxes to School District Property Taxes to State, County, Port and Hospital District $ 200,1~1 397,000 100,000 $ 697,1~1 $ 2~3,8~0 $ ~~3,108 The preceding analysis indicates that the proposed development would have a positive Iil net annual impact of $383,~06 ($697,1~1 annual revenue minus $313,735 annual costs). However, local service costs attributable to the project might initially exceed the revenues generated, due to the lag between the demand for services and collection of tax revenues. The evaluation of the immediate fiscal impact was beyond the scope of this analysis, Despite this limitation, and the other assumptions upon which the analysis was based (see Introduction), the results are a useful means of quickly evaluating the service requirements of the anticipated development, an~ monitoring the costs of the proposed instant land use decision. The City of Bothell has no formula by which to allocate tax revenues to individual service categories. It is not possible, therefore, to compare revenues to costs for each service function. The analysis showed, however, that the total long-term revenues generated by the proposal would exceed its total Iil servicing costs. Finally, it is important to remember that the net surplus of $383,~06 is expressed in purely financial terms. The analysis is not a substitute for the evaluation of non-fiscal or intangible costs and benefits, nor an analysis of cost effectiveness. - /8- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I APPENDIX D RETAIL MARKET IMPACT ANALYSIS -/9- BILL MUNDY & ASSOCIATES, INC. Real Estate Economic Market and Surve Research Anal sts December 2, 1980 Mr. Rodger Fagerhollll The Koll Company 2021 152nd Ave. N.!:. Redmond. WA 98052 Dear Mr. Fagerhollll: Bill Mundy & Associates, Inc. has completed its analysis of the probable effect the development of a 223.000 square foot neighborhood shopping center at I-405 and N.!:. 195th St. (the North Creek Interchange) will have on down- town Bothell. While our analysis concentrates on Bothell, we have also included Woodinville and the new Canyon Park C=unity Center at I-405 and Bothell Way since they fall into the Bothell-North Creek interchange trade area. The follow- ing paragraphs sUllllllarize the findings of our research. TO initiate the study a trade area analysis was done for Bothell. This in- volved intercept interviews with 203 Bothell area shoppers to determine their residence. Shopper's residence locations are shown in Figure 1. We found that 35% of the shoppers came from within one mile of Bethell and that the Sammamish River channel forms a significant southern tade area boundary. The primary trade area included 41% of shopper residences. The secondary trade area covers a much broader area extending north to Wintermutes corner, west to Kenmore, east to Woodinville and only about one mile south (approximately N.!:. 160th) of Bothell. An inventory of shopping space was made wi thin the primary and secondary trade area to determine the existing supply of space. Focusing on Bethell, we inventoried 172.339 square feet of retail shopping space there and 80,801 square feet in Woodinville and 77,625 square feet at Canyon Park. Demand was estimated. in two year increments starting with 1979. through 1987 based on. first, the existing characteristics of the marketplace and second, on the assumption that Koll builds the proposed neighborhood center. The probable effect on Bothell was then determined. The demand analysis begins with a careful population. household and house- hold income analysis for the greater Bothell trade area, which extends to a four mile radius from Bothell. This data base is shown on Tables 3-5. Then, under the "existing conditions" assumption, income available for, the purchase of various con- venience and shopper goods at Bothell is estimated based on Bothell's trade area and competition in and adjacent to the trade area. Based on Bureau of Labor Statistics household expenditure pattern studies. the 1972 and 1977 Census of Business for Service and Retail establishments and extensive Bill Mundy & Associates, Inc. consumer research volume expectancy by establishment type was estimated. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 900 Seattle Tower BaildiDg - Third & Uaiversity - Seattle, W..hiDgtoa 98101- Telephoae (206) 623-29351 Serviaq the Pacific Northwest. AIa.1ea aad Hawaii -.2.0- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The gross sales volume is then converted into probable supportable sales area using typical sales per square foot data (See, for example, the 1978 Dollars and Cents of Shopping Centers, Orban Land Institute). This data is shown in Tables 6-9. Based on our analysis we estimate a need for 277,296 square feet of shopping area in Bothell to meet 1981 demand. OUr inventory identified 172,339 square feet of shopping area available, a shortfall of _104,957. square feet. Demand was then estimated under the assumption that Koll develops its center. The data for this analysis is shown in Tables 10-13 and indicates a demand for ,208,417 square feet in 1981, a 36,078 square feet shortfall (208,417 minus 172,339). Therefore, our analysis indicates that the development of a Koll neighborhood shopping center at the North Creek interchange will have an effect on Bothell, de- creasing demand by sOllIe 69,000 square feet (existing condition demand-277,296 square feet minus conditions with Koll-208,417 square feet). However, our analysis suggests that if Koll's North Creek neighborhood center is built there will still be more de- mand for Bothell retail space than is presently being provided. If you have any questions regarding our analysis please feel free to call upon me for clarification, Sincerely, BILL MONDY & ASSOCIATES, INC. Bill Mundy, Ph.D., MAl WM:eh BILL MUNDY & ASSOCIATES, INC. 900 SeallIe To.uer Building. Seattle.1Jkshington 98101 . (206) 623-2935 - .2./ - A I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MARKET IMPACT ANALYSIS OF TIlE PRCPOSED NORTH CREEK NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER FOR TIlE KeLt. COMPANY . NOVEMBER, 1980 BY BILL MUNDY, Ph.D., MAI - .2.2.- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I IN'l'RODt1CTION Purpose The purpose of this stUdy is to dete:coine the probable effect on the City of Bothell thst a proposed ne1qhborhood shopping center, to be constructed in the northeast quadrant of Interstate. Highway 405 and N.E. 195th Street (the North Creek interchanqe) would have. Research Method There are three basic elements tl:l the research methodoloqy used in this analysis. n.e first _s a careful inventory of retAll shopping space avallable in the downtl:lw Bothell area. Second, the demand for retAll shoppinq space for the downtown Ilothell area _s est1mated. Then, the demand for downtow Bothell space was estimated under the assumption th4t the North creek neiqhhorhood shoppinq center _s developed. !ly using this three step methodoloqy it is possible to dete=1ne the demand effect th4t the developnent of the North creek shoppinq center will have. And, if there is an effect it will be pOssWe to dete=ine if there is an adequate market, after developnent of the North creek Center, to support the existing retail facllities found in Bothell. Field research for this stUdy _s conducted during November 1980. The demand est1lllation. technique used is the octant-segment method developed by Richard Nelson, Real Estate Research Corporation, Q11caqo, Illinois . Research PartiCipants Dr. Bill Mundy WIIa responsible for this project. Leigh Anne Van Duesen, Ilesearch Analyst, was responsible for data analysis and field research. Assisting' her in the field research effort WIIa Mrs. Jean Wooten and Ms. Priscllla Bolccmb. . ANALYSIS CJ1! S!JPPI.y Trade Area Analvsis J The Bothell trade area _s established by conductinq intercept interviews during the week and Saturday with 203 individuals shoppinq in . Bothell. n.e addresses of these individuals--;:';. 'obtained and they are plotted in Fiqure 1. Frem the interview data the primary, secondary and , tertiary trade areas for Ilothell ....re established. Forty one percent of the Bothell retall shopping activity is attributable tl:l those residents found in the primary trade area. Distinct boundaries are fozmed on the BOUth by the S~--ish River Channel and on the east by the Interstate Hiqhway 405 riqht-of_ay. Steep topoqraphical features and the "pull" of convenience shopping facllities found in Xe!llllore and Lake Forest Park - Z,.3- I I I I cause a distinct _stern trade area boundary. The secondary trade area, accounting for 40' of Bethell's shoppers, extends a considerable distance to the north, aliqning itself with Bethell Way N.E. Again, there is the noticeable boundary 011 the south by the Samnamish River Channel ancl. on the west by the SwAlllp Creek ravine. The tertiary trade area accounted for 19' of Bethell's shoppers. ;>N;~',ho_ .~ 1<-;-..;.., ....... ~ .'7 I Shol'l>inq Center Inventory I I I All of the retail shopping facilities located within a four mile radius trClll Bethell were identified. The total square feet in each center lIS well as a listing of shops, by type, was lllade for each center. This data is summarized in Table 1. I I I I A CClDplete inventory of all shopping facilities within Bethell's primary and secondary trade area WAS lllade which included an itemization of stores by type, name and square footage. This inventory, w1Uch included Bethell, Woodinville and the Canyon Park shopping center (located in the southeast quadrant of Interstate 405 and Bethell Way N.E.) is shown in Table 2. The inventory revealed 172,339 square feet of retail shopping area in Bethell, 77,625 square feet at the Canyon Park CoIIImunity Center and 80. R01 square feet in WOodinville. Therefore, there presently exists 330,765 sqiiare feet of retail shopping space in Ilothell' s primary and eecondary market area, inclUding Bethell itself. t NJoci';""J','I~_ ,1)"'-1 N. S""" Ct1!,..,4~ .~c, ? (?~v.;:~) DEMAND ANALYSIS Market Area Dem.ocrral'hics I I The number of households, population and incCllle per household for the trade area, defined by the four mile radius WAS quantified. Population and household .data is based 011. Puqet Sound Council of Gover"",ents data, cu=ent building pem.it data AS well as the e=nClllic base model for the Seattle metropolitan area developed by IIill fbndy ~ AsSOCiates, Inc; Info=ation 011 households, populatiOl1 and household incCllle, by one mile radius and octants and segments is shown in Tables 3 through 5. proj ections for 1981 through 1987 are based On the Bill Mundy ~ Associates, Inc. ecollOlllic base model for the Seattle metropolitan area. I Givl!l1 the demographic characteristics of the area we can lllake demand estimates for first, the existing market conditions and second, probable market =nditiODS ~ the North Creek neighborhood center is developed. I I Existinq Conditions Given the characteristics of Ilothell' s market area AS _11 as CClllpetitive facilities affecting Bethell, for example, Forest Park, '1'otem Lake and Aldervood Mall, market capture ratios by octants and seqments I I -26'- canyon Park 1-405 and Bothell Way 77,625 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I TABLE 1 SHOPPING CENTERS BOTHEI.L VICINITY CENTER NAME LOCATION SALES AREA Bothell, City of Bothell Way N.E. & Main 172,339 Woodinville' N.E. 175th St. Forest Park Bothell Way & Ballinger Way N.E. 207,000 Totem Lake I-405 and N.E. 124th St. 289,155 Houghton Juanita Dr. & N.E. l413t 24,550 Alderwood Mall * (Total GLA-l,500,000) I-5 and I-405 322,500 Total 1,093,169 Source: Bill Mundy & Associates, Inc. t.oJ.r *OUtside for mile radius, but large enough to influence shopper behavior. 1. Excludes WOodinville, which is being double checked. BILL MUNDY & ASSOCIATES. INC. 900 Seattle TOIUef Building' Seattle, Washlngton 98101 ' (206) 623-2935 -.:GiG- . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Cat:egory Grocery Albert:son's Safeway Thrift:way Q.F.C. Seafood Shop Hillcrest: Bakers Orowheat: Thrift: Shop Nut:rition Nook Yoodinville Foodland Prairie Market: Seafood Market: Yoodinville Self-Servo 7-11 DruJ;:s Pay Less Padget:t: Pharmacie Sidie Pharmacie Yoodgat:e Drug & Liquor A & H Drugs Liquor State Liquor St:ore Hardware Bot:hell Hardware Pay 'n Pak Total Home Cent:er Yoodinville Hardware Barber Bot:hell Barber & Style Vern's Barber Shop Barber Frank's Table 2 Square Feet in Trade Area Location Bot:hell Can,\,on Park Woodinville 36,074 22,400 39.535 20,000 17,000 10.8'00 6,384 2,400 1,890 693 660 10,000 17,940 3,600 2,442 4,200 6,996 38.000 1,404 38,000 720 3,000 1,404 3,276 2.970 2,970 11,550 6,500 2,160 7,752 1,638 6,500 1 .630 690 375 630 625' 690 -Z7- Kodiak KioSk Misty Morn Color Lab Fotomat 1.990 100 1,890 100 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Table 2 (Continued) Photo Supplies 100 Beauty Shop Belanich's Up Date Hair Salon Vander Veen Hair Design Genice's Beauty Salon Franny's Magic Mirror Cut it Again Sam The Wooden Comb The Sp11 tEnd 5.829 1,100 1,100 495 1,400 1,296 972 900 481 495 Bothell Fabrics Fashion Images Valley Textiles 780 7,029 2,400 629 4,000 Fabrics Variety Store Meredith 5 & 10 3.960 3,960 Family Apparel Children's Apparel Children's Center The Finery Western World Twice as Nice Boutique A - N - S Jeans Women's Apparel 12,510 875 875 8,343 1,080 2,700 396 624 6,750 8,343 Family Shoes 960 Donelson's Shoes 960 2,880 Men's Clothinl': Paul Richards 2,880 Bookstore 819 Smitty's Bothell Book Co. 819 O.(f1". S"fi"t.~ i) .,!Wl '1\itl ~"'f\'\1.Lo ~.5cl~,=~. -28- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Sporting Goods Bothell Cycle Run 'n Sport Jewelry The Jewelry Store Bothell Jewelers The Goldsmitb RObby/Toys/Games Stella's Yarns Toys - Toys - Toys Craft Boutique Trafalgar Squre Stationary/Gifts/Cards Hallmark Merry Lynn Candy Love Lace That Patchwork Place Card 'n Sweet Shop The Sparrow Bothell Card Shop Nortbsbore Gallery Buildin~ Materials/Supply United Building Supply Eatin~ Places Godfather's Pizza Taco Time Ranch Drive In Marko"s Sambo's Arthur Treacher ;01"" s Baskin-Robbins Rallock's Countryside Donut House .Sandwich Parlor Alexander's Archie's Shanty Charlie Good Time Belanich Sandwich Grubstake Charlie's Henning's ~oodgate Inn Table 2 (Continued) 792 792 2.395 945 1,080 370 2,862 972 450 468 972 6.849 1,638 1,620 675 660 864 1,092 300 24,763 1,200 1,620 -4,-320 1,800 1,320 4,160 576 1,620 7,000' 1,147 - 2,!!) - 2.600 2,600 7,250 3,000 3,000 1,250 429 429 1 .560 1,560 9,264 1,716 2,208 1.590 3,750 Drinkin~ Places Keystone Tavern Woodinville Tavern Furniture/Home Supplies Carpet Harris Upholstery Country Shop Heritage House Carpeta Bothell Interiors Pierre Maurice Parlor to Pantry Interiors Stan Berry's Unf. Furn. Appliance/Radio-TV-Music Bothell Appl & TV Melody TV & Appl. Radio Shack Bothell Radio & TV Mills Husic Woodinville Home Appl. The Country Gentleman Tumbleweek Connection Laundrv & Drv Cleaners Belanich Cleaners COin-op Speed Wash Nu-life Cleaners Speed-wash Woodgate Coin-op Laundry Sun Cleaners Legal Law Offices Attorneys TOTAL Source: Bill Hundy & Assoc. Inc. Table 2 (Continued) 2,310 2,310 11 ,966 4,200 1,620 740 585 4,500 321 12.558 3,850 3,108 1,260 2,340 6,467 2,000 2,700 1,260 507 7,140 4,500 2,640 172,339 -30- 2.000 2,000 3,400 2,000 1.400 1,400 77,625 3,650 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ,. I I 3,650 2,520 2,520 5,375 4,000 750 625 936 936 80,801 I I I radiating out from Bothell were estimated. ThU results in estimates of income available for convenience shopping goods (for example, groceries, drugs, hardware, etc.) and shopper goods (for example, department stores, clothing, furniture, etc.) as well as the probable lIllles volUllle that can be generated in Bothell. Sales volume estimates are based on typical expenditure patterns of households for the Pacific Northwest. These expenditure patterns were developed from an exhaustive Bureau of I.abor statistics household expenditure study perto:med in 1972. Also used is dstA from the 1972 and 1977 CenllWl of Business as well .. extensive data from various conSWller research projects performed by Bill Mundy ~ Associates, Inc. as well as other reputable shopping center IIlarket analysts. I I I I I I I once the lIllles volUllle estimates are developed, sales volUllle can be converted into square feet of area needed through the use of a sales per square foot ratio. sales per square foot data was obtained from the Orban Land Institute's Dollars and Cents of Shopping Centers, 1978. Median square foot lIllles were inflated to reflect current econOlllic conditions. Data on the incCllle avulable for convenience Shopping goods, shopper goods, probable volUllle expectancy and the IlUlllber of supportable square feet is shown in Tables 6 through 9. It is concluded that there is demand for 277,296 sqc.are feet of retail shopping space in Bothell for 1981, based on current market conditJ.ons. Given our population and household projections it is estimated that this demand will increase to 8ClIIle 301,000 square feet by 1987. Since there is presently available 172,339 square feet of shopping space in Bothell there is an indicated shortage of 104,957 square feet. I Delllllnd As8Wllinq the North creek NeiClhborhood Center Development I :In this portion of the analysis the probable effect on Bothell if the Koll Company develops a 223,000 sql1are foot neiqhborhood shopping center is quantified. Xoll proposes to provide a center with the following approxilllate WIer 1Ilix. I Grocery and combination - 60,000 sql1are feet. Drugs - 30,000 square feet. I I Hardware - 25,000 sqc.are feet. Specialty Retail*- 42,000 square teet. Retail Shops - 40,000 sqc.are feet. Restaurant (2) - 14,000 square feet. I I Banks (2) - 12,000 sql1are feet. * For example, a _jor furniture store, very large toy store or other extensive space user. I I -3/- BOTHELL I HOUSEHOLD DATA 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 I 0-1 MILES NE 923. 937. 953. 970. 998. I SE 761. 773. 786. 800. 823. SW 485. 493. 501. 510. 524. IlW 866. 879. 894. 910. 936. I TOTAL 3035. 3082. 3134.. 3189. 3282. 1-2 MILES I NNE 793. 810. 829. 847. 892. ENE 395. 404. 413. 422. 444. I ESE 484. 495. 506. 517. 544. SSE 871. 890. 911. 931. 979. SSW 832. 850. 870. 889. 936. I WSW 823. 841. 860. 880. 925. WNW 326. 333. 341. 348. 367. NNW 569. 581. 595. 608. 640. TOTAL 5093. 5204. 5325. 5443. 5727. I 2-3 MILES I NNE 572. 585. 601. 617. 647. ENE 600. 614. 630. 647. . 679. ESE 1221. 1250. 1283. 1317. 1381. I SSE 2074. 2123. 2179. 2237. 2345. SSW 2302. 2356. 2419. 2483. 2603. WSW 983. 1006. 1033. 1060. 1112. I WNW 2123. 2173. 2230. 2290. 2401. NNW 953. 975. 1001. 1028. 1078. TOTAL 10828. 11083. 11376. 11678. 12245. I 3-4 MILES NNE 763. 780. 800. 821. 859. I ENE 559. 572. 586. 601. 629. ESE 580. 593. 608. 624. 653. I SSE 1702. 1740. 1785. 1831. 1916. SSW 2574. 2632. 2700. 2770. 2897. WSW 510. 521. 535. 549. 574. WNW 1679. 1717. 1761. 1807. 1890. I NNW 1525. 1559. 1600. 1641. 1716. TOTAL 9(92. 10114. 10376. 10644. 11133. I TOTAL TRADE AREA 28848. 29483. 30211. 30954. 32387. I NOTE: COLUMNS MAY NOT ADD DOE TO ROUNDING. I SOURCE: COMPUTERIZED RETAIL DEMAND MODEL. BILL MUNDY AND ASSOCIATES, INC. -32- I I TABLE 4 BOTHELL , I POPULATION DATA 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 I 0-1 MILES NE 2954. 2999. 3050. 3103. 3194. I SE 2435. 2473. 2515. 2559. 2633. SW 1552. 1576. 1603. 1631. 1678. NW 2771. 2814. 2862. 2912. 2997. I TOTAL 9712. 9862. 10029. 10205. 10502. 1-2 MILES I NNE 2538. 2593. 2653. 2712. 2853. ENE 1264. 1292. 1322. 1351. 1421. ESE 1549. 1583. 1619. 1655. 1742. I SSE 2787. 2848. 2914. 2979. 3134. SSW 2662. 2720. 2784. 2845. 2994. WSW 2634. 2691. 2754. 2815. 2961. I WNW 1043. 1066. 1091. 1115. 1173. NNW 1821. 1860. 1904. 1946. 2047. TOTAL 16298. 16653. 17040. 17418. 18326. I 2-3 HILES I NNE 1830. 1874. 1923. 1974.. 2070. ENE 1920. 1965. 2017. 2071. 2171. ESE 3907. 3999. 4105. 4214. 4419. SSE 6637. 6793. 6973. 7158. 7505. I SSW 7366. 7540. 7739. 7945. 8330. WSW 3146. 3220. 3305. 3393. 3557. WNW 6794. 6954. 7137. 7327. 7683. I NNW 3050. 3121. 3204. 3289. 3449. TOTAL 34650. 35466. 36403. 37370. 39184. I 3-4 HILES NNE 2442. 2496. 2561. 2627. 2748. I ENE 1789. 1829. 1876. 1925. 2013. ESE 1856. 1898. 1947. 1997. 2089. SSE 5446. 5569. 5713. 5860. 6130. I SSW 8237. 8422. 8640. 8863. 9270. WSW 1632. 1669. 1712. 1756. 1837. WNW 5373. 5493. 5636. 5781. 6047. NNW 4880. 4990. 5119. 5251. 5492. I TOTAL 31654. 32365. 33203. 34061. 35626. I TOTAL TRADE AREA 92314. 94346. 96675. 99053. 103638. I NOTE: COLUMNS MAY NOT ADD DOE TO ROUNDING. SOURCE : COMPUTERIZED RETAIL IlEHAND HODEL, Bm. MUNDY AND ASSOCIATES, INC. . -33- TAbJ..E. ~ BOTHELL I mCOMEDATA 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 I 0-1 MILES NE $ 23721. 24088. 24495. 24925. 25652. I SE $ 18873. 19165. 19488. 19830. 20409. SW $ 11058. 11229. 11419. 11619. 11958. NY $ 20871. 21194. 21551. 21930. 22569. I TOTAL $ 74522. 75677. 76953. 78304. 80587. 1-2 MILES I NNE $ 20301. 20743. 21226. 21696. 22828. ENE $ 10151. 10373. 10614. 10849. 11415. ESE $ 12294. 12562. 12854. 13138. 13824. I SSE $ 21427. 21894. 22403. . 22899. 24094. SSW $ 19718. 20148. 20617. 21073. 22173. WSW $ 18847. 19257. 19705. 20142. 21193. I \JNlJ $ 7368. 7528. 7703. 7874. 8285. NNY $ 14396. 14709. 1505l. 15385. 16188. TOTAL $ 124501. 127214. 130172. 133057. 139999. I 2-3 MILES NNE $ 14643. 14988. 15384. 15793. 16559. I ENE $ 16260. 16643. 17083. 17536. 18388. ESE $ 33700. 34493. 35405. 36345. 38110. I SSE $ 51850. 53071. 54474. 55920. 58635. SSW $ 57780. 59141. 60704. 62316. 65342. YSW $ 31456. 32197. 33048. 33925. 35572. \JNlJ $ 55835. 57150. 58661. 60218. 63142. I NNY $ 24397. 24971. 25632. 26312. 27589. TOTAL $ 285921. 292654. 300391. 308365. 323337. I 3-4 MILES NNE $ 19533. 19971. 20488. 21018. 21983. I ENE $ 15652. 16003. 16418. 16842. 17616. ESE $ 16994. 17375. 17825. 18286. 19126. SSE $ 42550. 43505. 44632. 45785. 47888. I SSW $ 86486. 88427. 90718. 93061. 97337. WSW $ 15912. 16269. 16691. 17122. 17908. \JNlJ $ 45837. 46865. 48079. 49321. 51587. NNW $ 39040. 39916. 40950. .. 42008. 43938. I TOTAL $ 282004. 288333. 295802. 303442. 317382. TOTAL TRADE AREA $ 766948. 783877 . 803318. 823168. 861307. I I NOTE: COLUMNS MAY NOT ADD DUE TO ROUNDING. SOURCE: COMPUTERIZED RETAIL DEMAND MODEL, BILL MDJIDY AND ASSOCIATES ,INC. . IN OOO"S OF CURRENT DOLLARS. -34- I I I '1'ABI.E 6 E:XJ:STING CONDITIONS I INCOlll!: AVAILAllU: FOR PllllCIIASES (SITE SIIAU) CONVDIIE:NCE GOODS I IN OOO'S OF ctlIllIEllT OOLLARS 1985 1987 1979 1981 1983 I 0-1 KIlZS lIE $ 20163. 20475. 20821. 21186. 21804. I SE: $ 9436. 9583. 9744. 9915. 10204. SII $ 9399. 9545. 9706. 9876. 10164. llII $ 18784. 19074. 19396 . 19737. 20312. I TOTAL $ 57782. 58677. 59667. 60714. 62485. 1-2 IlIlZS I NNE: $ 7105. 7260. 7429. 7594. 7990. ENE: $ 4061. 4149. 4246. 4340, 4566. ESE: $ 3073. 3140. 3213. 3285. 3456. SSE $ 2143. 2189. 2240. 2290. 2409. I SSII $ 1972. 2015. 2062. 2107. 2217. WSII $ 942. 963. 985. 1007. 1060. I/llII $ 368. 376. 385. 394. 414. HllII $ 4319. 4413. 4515. 4615. 4856. I TOTAL $ 23983. 24506. 25076. 25631. 26969. 2-3 MIL!S I NIl! $ 3661. 3747. 3846. 3948. 4140. !IlE $ 4065. 4161. 4271. 4384. 4597. ES! $ 3370. 3449. 3541. 3635. 3811, I SSE: $ O. o. O. O. O. SSII $ O. o. O. O. O. IISI1 $ 1573. 1610. 1652. 1696. 1779. I/llII $ 2792. 2857. 2933. 3011. . 3157. HllII $ 2440. 2497. 2563. 2631. 2759. I TOTAL $ 17900. 18322. 18806. 19305. 20242. 3-4 MIL!S I NNE: $ 3907. 3994. 4098, 4204. 4397. !lIE: $ 783. 800. 821. 842. 881. ES! $ 6. o. o. o. o. I SSE $ O. O. o. o. O. SSII $ o. o. o. o. o. WSII $ O. o. o. o. O. I/llII $ O. o. o. o. o. I HllII $ 1171. 1197. 1229. 1260. 1318. TOTAL $ 5860. 5992. 6147. 6306. 6596. I TOTAL nv.m: AREA $ 105526. 107496. 109696. 111956. 116291. I NOTE: alLllllNS llAY JmT All1l DC! '10 IlOtlllIllNG. SOURCE: alll1'tlTE:U2!D ll!:TAIL IlEIWlD 1IOIlE:L, llILL IIDNDY JJIll ASSOCIATES, INC. . -~=-- I 'l'AllI.!: 7 I EXIS'l'ING CCNtlI'l'IONS INCOME AVAILABLE FOR PUllCllASES I . (SITE S1IAR.E) SROPPEJtS GOODS IN OOO.S OF ctlllIlENT DOLLAIlS I 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 0-1 MIL!:S I HE $ 5930. 6022. 6124. 6231. 6413. Sl!: $ 4718. 4791. 4872. 4958. 5102. I SV S 2764. 2807. 2855. 2905. 2989. !IV S 5218. 5298. 5388. 5482. 5642. TOTAL $ 18631. 18919. 19238. 19576. 20147. I 1-2 MIL!:S IlRE S 3045. 3111. 3184, 3254. 3424, I ENE: $ 1523. 1556. 1592. 1627. 1712. ESl!: $ 1844. 1884. 1928. 1971. 2074. SSE S 3214. 3284. 3360. 3435. 3614. SSIl $ 2958. 3022. 3092. 3161. 3326. I IISlI $ 2827. 2889. 2956. 3021. 3179. llNII $ 1105. 1129. 1155. 1181. 1243. RN1I $ 2159. 2206. 2258. 2308. 2428. TOTAL $ 18675. 19082. 19526. 19959. 21000. I 2-3 MIL!:S IlRE $ 732. 749. 769. 790. 828. I I!Il! S 813. 832. 854. 8n. 919. ESl!: $ 1685. 1725. 1770. 1817. 1905. SSl!: $ 2592. 2654, 2724. 2796. 2932. I SSIl $ 2889. 2957. 3035. 3116. 3267. IISlI $ 1573. 1610. 1652. 1696. 1779, llNII S 2792. 2857. 2933. 3011. 3157. RN1I $ 1220. 1249. 1282. 1316. 1379. I TOTAL S 14296 . 14633. 15020. 15418. 16167, 3-4 MILES I IlRE S O. 0, o. O. O. I!Il! $ O. O. O. O. O. ESE $ O. o. O. O. o. I SSE $ O. O. O. o. O. SSIl S O. O. o. O. O. llSll S O. O. O. O. O. llNII $ O. O. " o. o. O. RN1I $ O. O. O. O. o. I TOTAL S O. O. O. O. O. TOTAL T!AD! AIlEA S 51602. 52634. 53784. 54953. 57314. I Non:: CDLllHNS !lAT IlO'1' ADD DUE 'l'O ROtlNIlINC. I SOURCE: COllPt1'I'EltlZEll RE'l'AII. D!IlAIlD IIODE!" BIIJ. lIIlNDT AllD ASSOCIATES ,INC. I -.?~ - . 'rAllIZ 9 I EXISTING COIlllrnONS SllPPOIl!AlIIZ SALES AllEA I 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 . I COnvuu.~.nCZ coons I GROCERY AND COIlBIIlA'l"ION 50504. 51447. 52499. 53581. 55656. DllUGS 16788. 17102. 17452. 17811. 18501. I LlQU01l. 6871. 6999. 7143. 7290. 7572. BARDilAlll!; 16375. 16680. 17022. 17372. 18045. IlURSEIlY AND GAIUlEll 2403. 2448. 2498. 2549. 2648. BAlUIEIl 1524. 1553. 1584. 1617. 1680. I BEAtrrY 7035. 7166. 7313. 7464. 7753. PlIIl'l'O SUPPLIES 811. 826. 843. 860. 894. FAlI1UCS 9284. 9457. 9651. 9849. 10231. PlIHAltY SHOPl'Ell GOODS . DEP AIrnIEN! 5'r01ll!:S 52S19. 53570. 54740. 55930. 58333. VA1tIET1' SIOUS 854. 871. 890. 910. 949. FAIlILY APP ARn 4031. 4112. 4202. 4293. 4478. I F AIIILY SHOES 2005. 2045. 2090. 2135. 2227. II'!llS CLOTIIING 3098. 3160. 3229. 3300. 3441. J'!\/'!L1l Y 1080. 1102. 1126. 1150. 1200. IIOBBY 'rOTS GAIltS 707. 721. 736. 752. 785. I BOOI:STOR!: 1108. 1130. 1155. 1180. 1231. STATIONARY GIn CAllIlS 1479. 1508. 1541. 1575. 1642. SPORTING GOODS 3430. 3498. 3575. 3653. 3809. S'!COllDAltY SHOPl'Ell GOODS I FUIlNITORE/IIOUSE SUP. 16138. 16461. 16821. 17186. 1792S. APPLIA/IC'!S 7133. 7276. 7435. 7596. 7923. I 1tADID-1'V-!lUSIC 2372. 2419. 2472. 2526. 2635. BUILllING tlA'l"!IlIAL/SllP. 9320. 9507. 9714. 9925. 10352. EATING PLAC'!S 21507. 21937. 22417. 22904. 23888. DllINnNG PI.AC'!S 8395. 8~63. 8750. 8941. 9325. . CO!l!l'!Il.CIAL S'!IlVIC'!S LAUNDllY AND DllY CL!AII 9876. 10073. 10294. 10517. 10969. I UGUATION IZIST1lll!: !II!A'I'!llS 3176. 3239. 3310. 3382. 3528. I BOllLING 5343. 5450. 5569. 5690. 5935. PllOF'!SSIOIIAL S'!IlVIC'!S LEGAL 3535. 3605. 3684. 3764. 3926. I ARCII-ENGll-5UllVEY 3303. 3369. 3442. 3517. 3668. mr.u. 272005. 277296. 283198. 289222. 301146. I SOUllC'!: COIlPU'I'!llIZ!ll =AIL Il'!IIAND llODEL, BILL IIIlNDY AND ASSOCIATES ,INC. . -38- I I I Given the introduction of ltoll' S proposed North creek Neighborhood shopping center the probable .._.".. f= ret&il goods and services at Bethell was then reestimated using the ......e technique AS above. The incaDe available f= -8onvenience shoppinq 9OOds, shopper items, the probable 'O'Ol\lllle expectancy and number of supportable squars feet, by ret&il type, iJI .shown in ~ables 10 throuqh 13. . Aa ~able 13 indicates, the square feet of area needed to serve Bethell's probable market declines to 208,417 square feet. Thsrsfore, the illlpact of the ltoll Center on Bethell is a decrease in dm!umd by 68,879 square feet. I I I I Effect of the P=sed !Coll DeveloJ2llent In 1987 we estimate there will be a need for lIOIII8 225,700 square feet of Bothell ret&il space. The effect of the ltoll Center in 1987 would consequently be a loss of 75,400 square feet of demand. I Second, and IIIOre blportant, even though the Eell North creek Center will have a ldqnificant effect on the demand for retail shoppinq space in Bothell, the ..-..... f= space in Bothell with the Eell Center in place in 1981 suqgests a need for 208,417 square feet. Since there presently exists 172,339 aquere feet of shopping area in Bethell there will still exist a space shortfall in Bethell. I I Eell's North creek neiqhborhood center, if developed, could have a significant impact em Bothell if two conditions vere not present, Pirst, ~terstate Highway 405 riqht-of-vay serves as a ldgnificant barrier, boundinq Bothell' s trade area on the east, and consequently the North creek's market area on the _st. It iJI recoqni%ed that lIOIII8 shoppinq frOlll the North creek neiqhborhood center would accrue to the vest of Interstate 405 due to the direct access to the west via Beardslee Blvd. Bovever, due te the particular street pattern in northeast Bethell it iJI IIlUCh easier for residents who live in this quadrant to reach downtown Bethell than reach the North creek Interchanqe.o~L-,',f CIH.n Sr...,,,, tl.t., ~.. ~ t:.......-~,., s ~"'''"'1- S}'..ut~I_?ro.lJ!_t...t..t .....-.11. el-J'o.""l"'rn",,!! Second, as is demonstrated in the definition of Bothell's primary trade area (see ~allle 1) , shoppers f= convenience good. tend to be located within close proximity te where they conduct their shoppinq. Por Bothell, this iJI within approximately one lIIile of the central business district. ?? I I _i,..lJt~ C. >~v ""f'rir- I I I I I I I - 3:;- I =10 wrm mLL . INCOIlE AVAILABLE FOR FORCIlASES (SITE SlIA1lE) I COIlVEIITEIlCE GOODS IN OOO'S OF ctnmENT DOLl.AIlS 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 I 0-1 MI1ZS I II! S 10200. 103S8. 10S33. 10718. 11030. SE S 5662. S7S0. S847. 5949. 6123. SII S 9399. 9S45. 9706. 9876. 10164. NIl S 18784. 19074, 19396. 19737. 20312. I TOTAL S 4404S. 44727. 4S481. 46280. 47629. 1-2 MILES I NIl! S 101S. 1037. 1061. 108S. 1141. Ell! S S08. 519. 531. S42. 571. ESE S 1229. 12S6. 128S. 1314. 1382. I SSE $ 1071. 1095. 1120. 114S. 120S. SSII $ 1972. 201S. 2062. 2107. 2217. IISV $ 942. 963. 98S. 1007. 1060. lINlI $ 368. 376. 38S. 394. 414. I NNlI $ 4319. 4413. 4S1S. 461S. 48S6. TOTAL $ 1142S. 11674. 1194S. 12210. 12847. 2-3 MILES I NIl! $ 732. 749. 769. 790. 828. Ell! .$ 813. 832. 8S4. 877. 919. I ESE S 3370. 3449. 3S41. 363S. 3811. SSE S O. O. O. O. O. SSII S O. O. O. O. O. IISV S IS78. 161S. 16S8. 1702. 1784. I IIIIl/ $ 2792. 2857. 2933. 3011. 31S7. NNlI S 2440. 2497. 2S63. 2631. 2759. TOTAL S 11724. 12000. 12318. 1264S. 132S9. I 3-4 MILES NIl! $ 1953. 2038. 2091. 214S. 2244. Ell! S 312. 326, 334. 343. 3S8. I ESE $ O. O. O. O. O. SSE $ O. O. O. O. O. SSII S O. 0, O. O. O. IISV $ O. O. O. 0.. . O. I lINlI $ O. O. O. O. O. NNlI $ 1171. 12U. 12S4. 1286. 1345. TOTAL S 3436. 3S86. 3679. 3774. 3947. I TOTAL TRADE ABEA S 70630. 71987. 73423. 74908. 77682. I NOTE: COLUIlllS !lAY NOT ADD DUE TO ROUNDING. SOURCE: COllP11TERIZED RETAIL llElIAND MODEL, BILL IlllNDY AND ASSOCIATES ,INC. . -40- I I TAIlLE 12 I wrrH XOLL VOLml! l!:XP!:CYANCY (Ill OOO.S OF CllIlIlENT DOI.I.AllS) I 1979 1981 1983 1985 198 I S!lOPnllS ror.u.s $ 41756. 42556. 43439. 44334. 46179 I COltv"".u:z<C! morALS $ 70630. 71987. 73423. 74908. 77682 ~Onv"".u:z<C! COODS I CllOC!ll.Y AIlD COHBIlIATIOR $ 7579. 7724. 7878. 8038. 8335 D1l.UCS $ 1335. 1361. 1388. 1416. 1468 I LIQUOR $ 869. 885. 903. 921. 955 1IAllIl1lAlll!: $ 509. 518. 529. 539. 559 NOllSEllY AIlD GAIIDEII $ 92. 94. 95. 97. 101 IlAllBEll $ 57. 58. 59. 60. 62. BEAll'l'Y $ 247. 252. 257. 262. 272. I PII0T0 SOPPLnS $ 64. 65. 66. 67. 70 F A!IlICS $ 318. 324. 330. 337. 350 nnwr.y SBOPnll COODS I D!PAllTl!!:IIT STOUS $ 2869. 2924. 2984. 3046. 3172 V AltIETY STORl!:S $ 29. 30. 30. 31. 32 FAMn.y Al'PARJ:L $ 284. 289. 295. 301. 314 I FAllILY SllOES $ 113. 115. 117. 120. 125, HERS CI.OTIIING $ 221. 226. 230. 235. 245, J'EllELllY $ 125. 128. 130. 133. 139. !lOBBY TOYS GAIl!S $ 29. 30. 30. 31. 32. I BOOKS'r01lE $ 75. 77. 78. 80. 83. STATIONARY GIn CAIllS $ 67. 68. 70. 71. 74. SPORTING COODS $ 213. 217. 222. 226. 236, SECONDARY SllOPnll GOOllS I FURNI'l'ORl!: /IIOUSE S1lP. $ 660. 672. 686. 700. 730 APPLIANCES $ 418. 426. 434. 443. 462 I 1tADID-TV-tlllSIC $ 205. 209. 213. 217. 226 BUILDING llA'l'EllUL/SOP. $ 468. 477. 487. 497. 517 EATING PLAC!S $ 1720. 1753. 1790. 1827. 1903. DIUIlXIRG PLACl!:S $ 351. 357. 365. 372. 388. I COIl!lPJl.CUL SEltVICES LAUNDRY AIlD DRY CLEAII $ 251. 255. 261. 266. 277 I Il!CUATION LEIStJIl! 1'llEAntts $ 88. 89. 91. 93. 97 I BOlILI!lC $ 58. 60. 61. 62. 65 PROFESSIONAL SEltVICES LEGAL $ 572. 583. 595. 607. 633 I ARCll-EIIGll-5OllVEY S 534. 545. 556. 567. 591 . 1 OH,ct C.l'fi,~5 . morAL $ 20417. 20809. 21231. 21664. 22512 I SOOllC!: COllPllTEllIZED llE'rAn. llEllARD 1lCDU. BILL HllllDY AIlD ASSOCuns. DlC. . -4-2 - I I TABU: 13 wnH roLL StlPPORTABU: SALES AlU:A I 1979 1981 1983 1985 198 I I I COnv<.nu.na COODS GROCERY AND CO!IBDlATION 33803. 34452. 35140. 35850. 37178 DRUGS 11237. 11452. 11681. 11917. 12358 I LIQUOR 4599. 4687. 4781. 4878. 5058 IlAIlDIIAIl! 10960. 11170, 11393. 11624. 12054 IlllRSnY AND GARDEII 1608. 1639. 1672. 1706. 1769 BARBER 1020. 1040. 1060. 1082. 1122 I BEAll1'Y 4709. 4799. 4895. 4994. 5179 PHOTO SUPPLIES 543. 553. 564. 576. 597 F AlIItI CS 6214. 6333. 6459. 6590. 6834 I PUIlIJtY SBOPnlI.. COODS DEPARnlEIlT STORlS 42498. 43313. 44211. 45122. 47000 VARIETY ST01l!S 691. 704. 719. 734. 764 I' FAIIILY APPAIl!I. 3262. 3325. 3394. 3464, 3608 F AIIILY SBOES 1622. 1653. 1688. 1723. 1794 !lENS CLOTIIDlG 2507. 2555. 2608. 2662. 2773 .1ElIELItY 874. 891. 909. 928. 967 I HOBBY TOYS GAllES 572. 583. 595. 607. 632 BOOKSTORE 897. 914. 933. 952. 992 STATIONARY GUT CAIUlS 1196. 1219. 1245. 1270. 1323 SPORTING COODS 2775. 2829. 2887. 2947. 3069 I SECOIlDARY SBOPnlI. COODS FllRIlITllRE /HOUSE StlP. 130S9. 13309. 13585. 13865. 14442 I APPLIANCES 5772. 5883. 6005, 6129. 6384 RAllIo-TV-IlllSIC 1919. 1956. 1997. 2038. 1123 BUILDING lIA'l'ERLU./StlP. 7542. 7686. 7846. 8007. 8341 EAnNG PLACES 17404. 17737. 18105. 18478. 19247 DlUNXING PLACES 6794. 6924. 7067. 7213. 7513 I COIl!lERCIAI. SERVICES LAUNDRY AND DEY CIZAIl 7992. 8145. 8314. 8485. 8838 I IIl!:CUAnON LEISlIIIl!: TIIEA'mlS 2570. 2619. 2674. 2729. 2841 I BOIILING 4324. 4407. 4498. 4591. 4782 PROFESSIONAL SERVICES I U:GAL 2860. 2915. 2976. 3037. 3163 ARCB-ENGR-5U1lVEY 7 2672. 2724. 2780. 2837. 2955 Off-.i< S"'{'r"~S . I TOTAL 204495. 208417. 212680. 217033. 225702 I SOUllCE : COllPon:RIZEIl IlETAIL. DEIlANll 1IOllEI., BILL !lllNDY AND ASSOCIATES, INC. -43- -44 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Table 14 Effect of Koll Development 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 Existing Conditions 272,005 277 ,296 283,198 289,222 301,146 With Kell 204,495 2198,417 212,680 217,033 225,702 Effect 67,510 68,879 70,518 72,189 75,444 Source: Bill Mundy & Assoc., Inc. I . PllO!'ZSS:IONAI. QOAI.J:F:ICA'l':IONS B:II.I. MtlNDY I EDUCA'l':ION I Bach.lor ot Sci.nc., Agriculture (Busin.s. Option), Wa.hington Stat. Uni.....r.i ty, Pt. "~-.,, Washinqton I Mast.r ot Arts, Urban Economic., Univ.rsity ot Washington, Seattl., Washinqton Doctor ot Philo...phy, Marleeting, Urban EcODClllics and Surv.y Res.arch, University ot Washington, Seattle, Washington . '. I I SCBOLAS'r:IC BONORAR:IES Beta GaIlIIlll Si9'"A American :Institute ot Real Estate Apprais.r. Scholarship Recipient, 1970- 1971, 1975-1976 Univer.ity ot Washington repre.entative to 4octoral CClUlortiUIII and American Marle.ting Associaticm Ma.tin..., 1976 PUBL:ICA'l':IONS I Urban Ob.olescenc. - A ea.e Hi.tory of Obsole.cence-Renewal, Univer.ity ot wa.hinqtcm, 1970, Maatera Thesis. . I Seattle Real E.tat. Re..arch ReJ7Qrt, .emi-annual contributor, housing sur- vey tar the Seattle Metropolitan Area. Housin" Marle.t Analvsi., steve Lewi., Bill Mlmc!y md Richard O'Neill, W.y.rha.user Company, 1974, Tacoma, Washinqton. The Seattle Condomini1Dll Marle.t, B111. Mundy r. Associat.., :Inc., 1980. . "Natural Resourc. Scarcities llDc! the Co.t ot Housing,- Monograph, Univer- .ity ot washington, 1974 Seattle, Washington. I -Conjoint Meawremem: md Product Moditicatiotu An Aa..sSlllent ot lIomebuyer Energy ColUlciowm...,. Douglas 1.. MacI.achlan, Jame. M. McCullough md Bill Mundy, aWm1ttec! tor publication to the Journal ot Marleetin". I 1 ":Identification of Housing Marlcet Segmenta U.ing Partial Pref.r.nc. Pat- terns," Jim McCulJ.ough and Bill Mundy, paper pr...nted at the South- ....t.rn Marlceting Association Conferenc., Nev. Orl.an., March 23-26, 1976. I .A Partial Teat ot a fmlti-Staqe Theory ot Ilomehuyer Behavior: logical and Sub.tantive Approach Using Judqem.ntaJ. and Data," Ph.D. di.s.rtation, University of Washington, 1977. A Methodo- Behavioral "Th. G:IM !levi.it.d,. Bill Mundy and Mile. Scott, auhmittec! tor publication to Land Economics. I Bill MUNDY & ASSOCIATES, INC. 900 Seattle Tower Bullding . Seattle, Washington 98101 . (206) 623-2935 I -45- Lecaeion Anal 'VIlis (CO......rcial and Resideneial). Ore9<'l1' W&IIhingam and I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ., EXPERIEIICl!: Bill Mundy bas over thirteen years of! experience in the areas of! urban and rural land .c:o!ICIIlics, III&rkee and survey r.search. In addition to prof!e.- sional =naulat1on and res.arch he 111 preslll1tly an 1naexuctor f!or and member of! the Division of! Academic Lia1llCIII., the American I".ei~ of! Real EBaa Appraisers md reClll1tly developed md 111 helpin'l illlpl_t the Real EBata and Orban J:c:o!ICIIlics =1culUlll f!ar th., Gnduaa School of! .BlUlinellll, Seattle On1V11Z'11i1:y, whare he vlll also serve sa an inIItruc1:or. Past: e:oploymem. includa. Doane A'iJZ'icult:unl Senice, 51:. Louis, all a f!arm manaqer md rural ~aiser7 PlII1eon, CoDqer and ""'.~..., Seaetle, &II a real .eaa analyet7 W.yarba....ar CcIIIpaDy, all . real .st:aa and housing III&rk81: analys1:7 and the Oniveni1:y of! Washington, 1:aachin'l marketing and urban ec:o!lClllics. Bill analra- bave acquain1:ac! hiJIl vi th a vide range of! cllenea acros. a l&rt;Je part of! the On1tac! Sea1:all. A IIaIIlplin'l of! his con- aul1:at:ion, r.search and analra- include the f!ollowing. SUrvey Research Durabl. and ""n-durable proc!uct:II. Alalllca, British C01Ulllbia, Ore9on, '1'_ and Washinqb:ln. Conalmer aetieuc!... l".."a, '1'exas and Waahint;JtOn. Pinancial (Profitability) Analysis. WashinCJbm . Alaslea, Hissouri and Economic Base and Markee Anal'Vllis. Alaalca, Arizona, CalJ..f!oruia, Colorado, Plonda, Georvia, Ic!abo, Montana, New Mexico, ~'.h_., aregon, 'raxaa ane! Waah1.Dqt.OD. Riqh.st: and Best: Os. Analysi.. Arkansas, I\1orth Carolina, Okla- hcIIIIa, ClI:egan, SoW:h Carolina, V~ and WlUIhint;JtOn. EconaUc and PiJumcial Peasibility Sbldi... Idaho, Orlt<JCln md Washint;JtOn. Alaska, Hawaii, Ilenef!ie Cost: Analysis. WashinCJtOn Real Esea1:e Appraisal. Michiqan, Missouri., Wuccmsin . Alaska, Havaii, Idaho, Illinois, North Carolina, Oregan, Washington and PllOFESSIOIIAL A!'!'1:LJ:A'1'J:OKS American J:nat1t:ute of! ..&1 heau Appraisen (MAl: '5439) - Melllber, Division of! Acad.lllic Li.son. Cours. and s.minar inIItruc1:or. Au1:bor of! varioua COUZ'1I. _t:erial. American Marketing llllloeiat1on - S.=st:ary, Puqee Sound Cbapter. Amencan Real EBaa md Orban J:concmics Association Association for COJUlUlller .search Seaetle Real !:aUte .search CoaIIli~.. - Cbairman, lIoIUIin'l Vacancy CoIIIII:it1:ee. Seattle ~ Builc!ara Asaociat:ion. BILL MUNDY & ASSOCIATES. INC. 900 SaIlle Tower BuiIdlng. Seattle, Washington 98101'(2()6) 623-2935 -46- I I I I I I r' I I I I I I I I I I I I I APPENDIX E LETTERS AND DATA RELATED TO AGRICULTURAL FEASIBILITY (Financial statements contained in this section were prepared at the request of the KOLL Co,) .-47- MONTE VILLA FARM L H. and ELEANOR FORTIN 20300 . 112t1o N,E. 80TH ELL. WASWINGTON 9SOl1 May 20, 1981 Page 1 of 2 I I I I I RECEIVED Mr. William E. Derry Willsey & Ham, Inc. Central Park Building 1980 112th NE Bellevue, Wa. 98004 , : W 2 G 19811 I WILSEY &. HAM. INC. Dear Mr. Derry: We are the owners of Monte Villa Farm, located north the ~ing-Snohomish County line, immediately north of Vitulli Farm. of the Over the past years there has been controversy, legal en- tanglements, city elections, court. decisions and general harassments which encompass our Monte Villa Farm. In meeting after meeting, people converge from miles around to voice their opinion against well planned developments. A large number of these objectors do not own property in or around North Creek Valley. .' '.- Previous to this, the Federal, State, and County government collaborated to build a freeway through North Creek Valley, now known as Interstate #405. When we as owners of Monte Villa Farm objected, we were summarily ordered into court ~n condemnation proceedings. When we proceded to fight for right of protection of our property, we were the only people in the courtroom other than the Judge, jury and attorneys. All other seats were empty. The Judge instructed the jury that this was a condemnation trial and that the only issue was how much money to be paid for the property to be con- fiscated. With the condemnation completed for the North Creek Valley property, and the freeway design approved, the future of the Valley and its development was pre-ordained. Any reputable community planner, engineer, or national re- cognized.property developers will confirm that development -. . -- . - -....=: ".. ..- - . . .. ;... .: ~ .. . . -----:::----._.~.~.- '., -," .-.. .~.::~... : ........----...: ". :.:,:: "," . . ;. - ::'~ ~ '" ~__ ~;...---:~~~ ~_::.._~ .~7", " , . . -. , ~. ..' ! .--- .-... :... -: ....:~"7*....: _:;;,.. ~ ;. - ! .'. "-- .",- ~..-- ,- ."- -'. -z';?' ','; ~.. ", ...:' <-. ....... . =" .---- ;;.._r-_ . . . ~~~:..::r'r _:.; :.'-r'~7 :::. '-- .-:- .~. ---.-:==--~-~..:=~ - ~. ~'~'- -_:'".::...:.:....:.;. -::-. I I I I I I I I I I I I ,...:.-_.. I . - . '". - .' I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Mr. William C. Derry Page 2 of 2 should take place at cloverleaf interchanges and valley floors. Over the last several years many objectors of development have cited our farm as an example of a successful farm operation. Enclosed is a copy of the income statements for the last several years. They show unequivically that Monte Villa Farm is a loser. Mrs. Fortin and her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd C. Mitchell have owned the farm since 1936. In that entire time, Monte Villa has never made a profit, i~ spite of the fact that in the last three years we have had the best manager we have ever had. We have poured endless amounts of money into the property from other successful ventures. However, in the last three to five years living at Monte Villa Farm has been very diffi- cult, bordering on nightmarish. People have shot our cows rustled our calves, dumped bear carcasses along our fences, dumped garbage and broken down furniture - sofas, chairs, tables, and etc., on our property. Our chain link fence has been run into innumerable times. Damaged long strips of chain link fence had to be repaired at our expense because the culprits have escaped our detection. We have been harassed at our doors at night with people perhaps with robbery in mind. We have called the sheriff out numerous occasions to have people removed from the property. With all above problems we have decided to abandon the area. We have purchased a Townhouse in Bellevue and will be leaving the area in the fall of 1981. We have been considering various options for disposing of the buildings and property. We have disposed of some large acreage west of the freeway. For the area east of the freeway, we are considering some type of future development or gifting the property.. At any rate, it cannot remain agricultural. It is our belief that the present Koll plan or other similar plans for the intelligent development of the Valley is by far and away the best eventual use of the'Valley, for the betterment of all. Thank you for your time and attention. Sincerely, ~\\.:.~\....'r,,-. ~ \~ '-\c..;'\',.._, '~''-''-'_I- Eleanor R. Fortin \ \ , . . \, \ . "" ., ,- \ .-\ \ '", \ :-:- ._(:,,-\.. "- ~ '- ,_"d \ L. H. Fort~n " - cc: Dan Taylor \ ' \. \ . ~ \... - '- ..... '.. . . '- , \- , . ," ~.- . ., , '.' "\ i \. r. . . "J-"~ \..\ \.. \ " \ - -....... "- , I I _ \ ..\(. f. \'" "'~- FORTIN, LaVERN SUMMARY OF FARM INCOME & EXPENSES 1974 1980 - 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 Gross Rents $27,727 $12,080 $ 9,510 $ 9,310 $ 7,425 $ 7,140 t 5,920 State Claim 2,250 Total $27,727 JI2,080 J 9,510 J 9,310 $ 7,42!1 J 7,140 J 8,170 Expenses Depreciatlon $ 5,551 $ 4,753 $ 5,163 $ 5,505 $ 6,923 $ 8,317 Repairs - lB"69 Carpentry $ 8,504 $ 904 $ 1,188 $ 552 $ 627 Paintin9 712 I 174 $ 472 Plumbing 2,112 t 1,189 t 1,031 1,862 t 2,977 Miscellaneous 305 951 970 $ 1,063 732 374 Heating, Fuel $ 3,172 t 813 Insurance 2,548 $ 2,123 $ 2,126 $ 210 Interest I 147 Salaries $ 5,751 6,572 $ 5,450 $ 5,100 $ 5,682 t 6,321 1 6,252 Supplies $ 209 197 275 169 Taxes-Property $ 8,800 $ 5,815 t 6,191 $ 6,93~ t 5,486 $ 5,427 f 4,948 Taxes-Payroll $ 1,626 $ 1,482 916 f 997 433 f 885 687 Util1ties $ 2,513 f 2,460 $ 1,599 679 . $ 984 79 $ 600 Equipment Rental $ 117 682 Expense Reimbursements $(3,037) Repairs - Electrical $ 33 $ 1,030 $ 727 $ 701 Maintenance $ 202 Office Expense $ 5 $ 9 Fence Repa i rs $ 185 t 505 $ 535 $ 24 Flood Damage Repair $ 1,902 2,696 Pump & Pump House $ 714 Profess iona 1 $ 3,447 $ 2,759 Other Repairs - Creek $ 2,204 $ 2,281 $ 705 Taxes - Other $ 61 Repairs - Appliances $ 228 Cleaning & Hauling 1 109 Survevi nq 320 TOTAL EXPENSES $34,568 $34,928 $27,117 $31,407 $21,357 $26,782 $27.169 Net Income (Loss) $(6,841) $(22,848) $(17.607) $(22.097) $(13.932) $(19.642) $(18.999) -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I (!I c:> I - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I BOTHEll FARMS SCHEDULE OF FARMING OPERATIONS 1981 This is a projection of costs and returns for farming the Ko11 site, prepared by the Certified Public Accountant for the present owners, Bothe11 Farms. A. Present size of farm - 141 acres less 13 acres for buildings, roads and creek, Tillable acres - 128 B. Crops raised - graded and inspected. produce 1. Cabbage, cauliflower, etc. - unp1antab1e 2. lettuce (head, romaine and looseleaf) 3. Celery 4. Potatoes, turnips, corn, etc. - small crops C, Allocation of acreage 1. lettuce - 83 acres 2. Celery - 30 acres 3, Other - 42 acres Total - 155 acres D. Expected Income - intensive use 1. lettuce a) 20,400 plants per acre, less 25% loss thru death, mechanical destruc- tion, disease, weather, insects, unmarketable, etc. = 5,100 lost, b) Harvested heads - 15,300 c) Cartons for sale 15,300 t 24 = 638 d) 638 cartons at sales price of $3.00 per carton = $1,914,00 per acre 2. Celery a) 24,800 plants per acre, less 20% loss = 4,960 lost b) Harvested stalks = 19,840 c) Cartons for sale 19,840 t 30 = 661 d) 661 cartons at sales price of $4,50 per carton = $2,974.50 per acre 3. Other crops a) Potatoes - 15 acres at 6 tons per acre; 240 - 50 pound sacks at $2.50 per sack = $600.00 per acre b) Corn (sweet) - 10 acres at 175 cartons (5 doz, pack) per acre at $2.25 per cartons = $393.75 per acre, c) Romaine - 7 acres at 510 cartons per acre at $2.75 per carton = $1,402.50 per acre. d) Turnips - 10 acres at 4 tons per acre; 320 - 25 pound sacks at $.75 per sack = $240,00 per acre. - 5/- Sales lettuce Celery Other crops -- $ 158,862.00 $ 89,235.00 $ 25,155.00 labor - Hours Per Month 1,056 hours 1,120 hours 1 ,232 hours 1,232 hours 2,548 hours 4,480 hours 6,720 hours 8,400 hours 8,400 hours 4,860 hours 1 ,176 hours 288 hours 41,512 x $5.85 per hours = $242,845.00 (labor cost per hour includes taxes and benefits). January February March April May June July August September October November December labor Expenses Direct Expenses (Schedule A) Indirect Expenses (Schedule B) Debt Service (Schedule C) $ 242,845.00 $ 150,838.00 $ 15.922.00 $ 18,474.00 Net loss from farming operations -52- I I I I I I I :1 I I I $(154.827.00)Net Annual Loss II I I I I I I I $ 273,252.00 Gross Income $ 428,079.00 Gross Costs I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I A. Direct Expenses Spray $ 2,970.00 Seed 1,545.00 Fertilizer - 85.2 Tons @ $275 per ton 142 acres @ 1,200 lb. per acre 23,430.00 Equipment - Parts and maintenance 4,000.00 Cartons - 80,000 @ $1.05 84,000.00 Bags 1,700.00 Supplies (labels, staples, etc. ) 1,260.00 Electricity 4,800.00 Upkeep of labor housing 2,000.00 Upkeep of buildings 2,000.00 Fuel oils (tractors 7 trucks) 10,920.00 Depreciation of equipment (schedule) 12,213.00 $ 150,838.00 B. Indirect Expenses Insurance $ 3,000.00 Personal property taxes 600.00 Accounting 600.00 Legal 500.00 Office, supplies and bookkeeping 1,800.00 Telephone 900.00 Advertising 1,200.00 Li censes 900.00 Dues and subscriptions 300.00 Real estate taxes 6,122.00 $ 15,922.00 C. Debt Service (exclusive of land costs) Interest on equipment purchases as new equipment - balance of $102,636.00 x 18% = $ 18,474.00 -53- Equipment Costs - New GMC - 2 ton truck - 16 foot - van box GMC - 2 ton truck - 16 foot - van box Ford 3/4 ton truck - pick up John Deere - 284 tractor - 80 horsepower diesel John Deere - 4 bottom plow John Deere - disk - 14 foot Meeker - 10 foot harrow and roller Massey-Ferguson - Model 230 tractor - 35 horsepower Massey-Ferguson - Model 230 tractor - 35 horsepower Flatbed rubber tire wagon - 14 foot Flatbed rubber tire wagon - 14 foot Hardy tank and sprayer - 200 gallon New holland celery planter John Deere row crop duster Irrigation a) 4,800 feet of 4-inch aluminum pipe with spring tees and fittings b) 2,520 feet of 3-inch aluminum pipe c) motor and pump d) Installation of pump Cultivating attachments 3 point seeder attachment Less 1/3 to convert to average used value Net new equipment value -54- $ 23,800.00 4,200.00 23,800.00 4,200.00 9,000.00 22,000.00 4,000.00 4,500.00 3,500.00 11,975.00 11 ,975.00 2,800.00 2,800.00 3,500.00 3,000.00 2,500.00 $ 7,680.00 3,024.00 900.00 1,200.00 1,500.00 2,100.00 $153,954.00 $ 51,318.00 $102,636.00 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I -, '. -I I I I I I I I I I I I Equipment Costs - Used It Ton Truck - Flatbed - 16 Foot' Smal.l Tractor - Cultivating Small Tractor - Cultivating Potatoe Planter & Digger $ 8,000.00 2,100.00 2,100.00 3.300.00 $ 15.500.00 Othe r Equ i pmen t $ 4,000.00 Shop Tools Welders Packaging Equipment Planting Tools, knifes, hoses and other -hand tools. Total Equipment New Value Used Hi sce llaneous $ 102,636.00 15,500.00 4,000.00 $ 122,136.00 Depreciation - 10 Year Life $ 12 ,213 .00 NOTE: land costs are not included in this analysis. As stated in the text of the Final EIS, King County has recently completed appraisals of comparable farm- lands in the Sammamish Valley. The total cost of the Koll site if purchased for farming after development rights had been purchased under the Agricultural Preserva- tion Program would be approximately $709,240.00. If capitalized at an annual rate of 18% this would be an additional annual cost to the farmer of $127,663.00. -5=- k~ SHORT Be: CRESSMAN 30ft FLOOR. SB..U'TLB.F'Ia8T NArloJf.l.t. BANK B1nU>DfO 1001 Fo'C1l"l'B AVENtTE SE.U'1'LB. W~8BINOTOM 9811:54 DJIWS'J'Ir P. "oaT PAIn. .. aa:auux .......... ... BDn'ZII .fO_ 0. 8UJlO&_ DOUOua ..~ aollCaT..~ .rOJDC" ~~ DOIUI.D w. n~ ".A.Ma.A.~ D.Io.vm..~. D>nOfttI ... ...... _LJun .rouPII D. ncDft JlO8&ft J. QUW C.A.Ja. .. 000DWDf...nL Dn"II 0. &u.Dwnr PAUL .. aa:.~..ra. aOJqft .. DOtn1DTI' ~ a.UWLZJt ~..ww.~. IV~ LUHDIarTJI...nL oIoIrJId. .... KAYO'M"lt ~C.I).IIuv. 11... L. JnmeaaJO onnJr JUD TE1.EPB:ONB (206) 662'3333 May 26, 1981 Mr. William Derry Wilsey & Ham Central Park BUilding 1980 - l12th N.E. Bellevue, WA 98004 Dear Mr. Derry: I am trustee for the Lockwood Estate, which among other assets, currently owns approximately 85 acres within the City of Bothell south of the proposed Koll Development on the Vitulli Property. I have closely followed the comprehensive planning of both King County and the City of Bothell as it pertains to the North Creek Valley, and am familiar with the previous zoning activities that took place on the Vitulli Farm during the pro- posed shopping center and rezone proceedings. Specifically focusing on possibilities for an agricultural alternative in the North Creek Valley, I would accept the economic analysis submitted by the Vitulli Property owners during their rezoning proceedings as being an accurate representation as to the fact that produce farming is no longer an economically sound utilization of this land. The Lockwood Property has never been in food-crop pro- duction and has only been sporadically used for cattle grazing for approximately the last 45 years. Prior to my being named trustee of the Lockwood Estate in 1957, I was a personal friend of Mr. & Mrs. Byron W. Lockwood since 1938. During the years I have acted as trustee, I have never received an inquiry from anyone regarding an interest in farming this land. The income from the rent derived from grazing has barely covered the taxes in previous years. For this reason and other economic factors, we have declined participation in the King County Farm Land Program. The history of the property has no agricultural activity, and we believe it is better suited for other purposes since the advent of the freeway in 1968. The writer herein owns two farm tracts in Carnation, -.:5{' - I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I ,I I I I I I I , I r I * I I I I I I I I I I I Mr. William Derry May 26, 1981 Page 2 Washington. These tracts comprise 155 and 217 acres. It was determined that these properties could not be economically farmed, and because of that fact, one previous owner sold out as the land would not carry a sufficient number of cattle for milk purposes. Hence, I feel somewhat qualified to render an opinion upon the inability to economically farm the Lockwood and Vitulli properties. We are in concurrence with a planned and orderly development of the North Creek Valley and have had con- versations with prospective purchasers who share this similar point of view. We have reviewed the Koll project on the Vitulli Farm and find it to be compatible with our thinking as adjacent property owners. Thank you for your attention. s~ YO;L ~"}l, I~ Paul R. ~ssman, Sr. PRC/ld cc: Mr. Dan Taylor Director Community Development City of Bothell 18305 - 101st Avenue N.E. Bothell, WA 98011 - :57- John Zanassi 18018 - 140th N.E. Woodinville, WA I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I I Dear Sirs: . I am a resident of the Woodinville area and have been since 1923. ' From 1923 to 1968 I was a partner in the Woodinvil1e farm of approximately eighty acres that was known as J. Zanassi and Company. During our forty-fi ve years of farmi ng we grew mas tly 1 ettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, some celery and various other truck crops. During the early years we did well up through the end of World War II. After the war, California grew into a large industry and was more and more able to compete with us on price even when we had fresh local produce dun ng our s urnmer. We operated our farm with an average of six working partners year round. For sixty-ninety days in the summer, we hired six-ten Mexicans and ten or more high ~chool students for weeding, etcetera. From 1950 on, labor, that had the skill we needed, was not available and when it was available, was unreliable and expensive. Al:+-our other operating costs and materials were also increasing while our selling price never was able to rise because of our short growing season and increasing pressure from the large California distribution system that really controls the price in our Seattle market. With all of these considerations we' reached a point where my partners and I decided to stop farming ~fter the 1968 harvest. We placed our farm on the market in the fall of 1968 complete with all the equipment necessary to operate. We received no serious offer from anyone who wanted it as a farm even with the equipment included. Finally, in December of 1968, we sold to a, syndicated group of investors. They held an auction on the equipment and the land has not been farmed since. The land is rich bottom land and will grow good crops but nobody likes to work hard and break even or even risk yearly losses. We understand the need of the Vitullis to quit farming since the situation has probably gotten worse from the time we quit in- 1968. . /3 < l.c-....-.€ ~ As a present resident of Woodinville and farmer in the area for forty-five years, I think the Vitulli Farm request for a rezone is a reasonable one. . ;, ;;h:,u~~d~C: ~-z:.~<-1.-a~''''~<L.f.: p .u I'}' .. .,/""} 1J~e.... . ..,/-h~ i:. . .... I -.:5B-.-, /../ -__ . Il _ '-vLI T...- ~ /o.u., -r.,____-,... (~. oC.,...:.M,'t..'f',..A...,k. -'( ..~. 91"// J. I.M I I I I I I I I I I I- I I I I I I~ I I I ''YAn~Q.~~ ~~s.~~~...~~ItY.€J, ~~ e ' , IMPORTERS - EXPORTERS - DISTRIBUTORS ~!!.l.il'fl~ ~V~-P~~~;'~ ....ONE ~.7.3:a IL.OC::AL.) ".-7'''0 (L. C.) AIt&A CODE 208 .... OC:C:IO.HTIoi. AVL ao. S~~ '}'",MIH. 98134 Janu~ 25, 1074 Pothell Planning Commission :Bothell, Washington Gentlemen: The folloving is beinl!: r'H~,!,pctf'llly !lUbmi'ttpd in oehalf of the D. Vitulli to Comp;uly, Inc. .Our COl:lpany, Watton Di '3tributine-, Inc., hl!l!l had forty (.dO) years of experience ma.rketiog fresh frui.t and produ-:e, in the U"-th\test. The growing and ma.rketing 01' local produce used te> be a larf':" factor in the industry however, since the concept of large chain o"'::'~zations the whole ma.rketing conce:ot of t;,e lo('.al producp industry hal; changed. Most 01' the larger ch~ buyers must have a consi~t~t source 01' supply therefore, th.. vrlume of rroduC'e, mostly frOl'l Califnrni"" has increased and the locally grololIl r>roiluce hl\S continually declin~!.,,:' In the past rive (5) yean> I!I".ny local fame~ have sold rot and ceased operation. The ricin.! tp.x'!!l, lp,br-r !,=blem'l, wea.ther 1'q,ctors have decreased demand for locp~ ~roduce. Improved transportation, ~onsi~tancy 01' ~lnply, improved ~ackaging and the advent 01' va= C\oolin~ "1' produC'.e O'~t of the major !!hip;litlE-' areas in Califorois l1'lVC all contribute~ to the loca~ ~O"lers pli~t. It has been the experience of ?t1.. C'.ompan:v thp.t, the vol'lme of out of state produce has continually inr:"!'eased. Mar.y of the buyers thR,t we contact have discontinued purchasi~ loc~l pr.o~uce ~d obtain all of their supplies from ,other producing areas on A yea~ a"!'~~ bl\~i". Due to the many p:roblelll!! facing tl:1e 10('.a1 fll-.:'lllerS it 11' our opinion tbl!t in the near future they wi'l become '!xt1nct. There are many other points of informat1"n oont1"1but1n... to the loo.u. 1'a.I:lIlers problem::, which we wi)1 ~ladly discuss with your committee, 11' you should so deRi:o-e. LFW/mp ,,- ,~ ~rtplp.y. ~~"ent /' .., . ,G-c.c...~(' ""r' /~ .1,.4./. - 5::J- . ;.. ... ~.~ -, .ff ..- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I il I I ,. Wi',.....' A.. Hartin -Produce Consultant Founded produce jobbing house 1930-1942 Founded produce brokerage hOWle 1942-19.50 Pac1tic Fruit and Produce Co. ,Division Superinterxient, Northern Shipp1ng.19.50-1972. Produce Consultant 1912- Present. '. .' . ~. .' . . ,.. ..r .. . - ~ .... .;; " :'. , -. " ~' ". '. ~ A~' ~~.. ~-r" '9/,,.,,., .' -~o- . I ' t. ~-:,.,--c...... r/.L"";' I I I il I I I I I: Ii I II I Iii I I Ii I! I I: .' m~mm~mmm $z<nu..J7~ 7890 SOUTH 188th STREET KENT, WASHINGTON 98031 ,I,phone (206) 226-3700 January 30. 1974 Bothell Planning Commission City Hall Bothell, Washington Gentlemen: We are writing in regard to the re-zoning of the Vitulli farm and what effect it may have on local produce supply. In recent years Tradewell Stores have not depended~:- ,,_ upon the local grower for supply because of the proficient. mass production of the California growers. The California grower has a tremendous advantage with the favorable weather conditions. twelve. months of the year; therefore, it is almost impossible for local growers to compete either with price or quality. Sincerely. i I I: I {it Ir~~r4-J AI Thompson President I: j I . I I ~ ! L. _./ ,. ..' - . '. . ~..... " ." ....\..t - 0/- . :.",..~ ~ ".- January 18,1974 '" . ' Mr. Whitney M. Ward 633 Lake Washington Blvd.N.E. ,'. ... ,-. Kirkland, WaslUngton Bothell Planning Collllllission Bothell. Washington . Dear Sirs. I have followed with interest. the grOlling controversey surrounding the Bothell F&rlllll application for rezone. For twenty nine ;years I served the State of Washington in t.he capacity of Agricultural Inspect.or and was also licensed at the federal level. During the course of m:r job tenure I had frequent opport.unity . to inspect. produce at. the shipping point. to determine it.'s ability t.o carry through to destination. One of the most. demaming mar~!,t. areas .".- to service for the produce supplier is the federal gover%llllllnr,(irm;r,Navy, Com=issaries, etc.) and shipments bound for Alaska.. This market demanded a quality product. The Vitulli farm served 'this market and was able to meet the speCifications of the standard U. S . grade.f6r government supply. sometimes at a loss. Hwever with the advent of vacUUIII cooling that the California grower util1:ies, the local Seattle grower was at a disadvantage. Vacuum cooled produce carries and maintains a shelf life longer than produce harvested here under si.lll1lar conditions am not vacuum cooled. To reduce the risk of rejection of shipment the local brokerage houses seek California produce. Regardless of the quality control mea~nres the local grower pursued he was still at a disa~vantage against the CaliforniA products. ~ ~~.<,r -~2- t"" 1-'t:' . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I , , I' . I I I I -, I 'I I I I I I :1 :1 I I I I " ...... The Vitulli f&rlll produce has always carried a quality image am repatation but this cannot offset the economics of the Cal1!orni& year rouni supply. .: . Should you require verification of what I have said I &lIl uailAble . .. ," at the abaft address. I plan to attem the public hearing January 30 and can be called upon to ampllf:y on this subject. 'Sincerely . ~. D;.4~,Q Q~u( Whitney H. Ward ......,. , ::.,. , ,. . . .,' .:-' '.- ,": .r" ::;:.. :.~. . ~t-. .f!': ,.- ", . .~ .-.' -... - ~ ":,'..i~ .. ." ., " . .... .... . ?- .' .. ... .' ' ':"~ .. ... .... -~.3- . r- -",- --. S. T. E I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ...8. MA..ACHU8ETT8 aT. .UTTLE, WA '.'3" (aDa. 62::1.&4':1 . January 28, 1974 To: 1be Bethell Planning Catmissic:n F.ran: S. T. Prcduce Ccmpany R!y Ki'yohara, President Dear Sirs: It has o::me to my attention during the Bethell Fatms request for rezone, tlat one of the issues is the pre5eJ:Vatian of truck garde:. land in the greater Seattle area. ~ seems to ba a great deal of CCI'lcem on the part of =re resic!<s:ts that \E are losing oor precious faIIII land to in- dusb:y. It is d:lvi.c:us that these people do not understand the" present ea:ma:li.cs and 19oistics of farming in the greater Seattle ~_ ....:. My cx:ttpany st:artai c:peratic."1 in 1948 as a shipper of prcduce iran the Seattle area to Portland, Spokane, and Vancouver, British ColUnbia. We had established Cl.lSt:aters in these areas who ~ wh:llesale outlets, and we l"F'1 i ""l upon the ]t"lr'"al ~s in the Seattle area for our source of . ~~'. As aIr b.1siness CJreW, we ~ unable to ba assured of a cantinuity of supply from a local groIo.er due to erratic \>leather conditicns that in- fluenced the canying quality of the produce as weJ.l as the continued a:Jequate voll.llle of supply. To supplanent oor business during the winter, \E balght iran Califomia bIt \E t:ha.1ght during the stmner \E could obtain a:Jequate quality and voll.llle to sustain oor shipping bIsiness and OlStarers thrcughwt the:year. '!his was not the case. To assure myself a cantinuity of supply, I entered the faming business in 1959 in the Kent Valley arxi fal:1led iran 110 to 120 acres of lettuce. The first :year or two proved to be narginaUy SUCcessful: -and the last tt.o years prMl'ced losses at the fa1:ming level, and in 1963 I discantinued farming even thoJgh I had an assured altlet for ~ product due to my shipping b.1siness and the custarers in Portland, Spokane, and Canada. The J:easm for my farming losses was the diffimlty in obtaining adequate 1abar at the 1:im= I r--'~ it since I was dependent on experienced Mexican- 1llreri <"an or. Filipino crews who would CXtle iran Califomia. -. 9"1"( -"- -.:o~ . ,. , , , I J P ~, ~ ~ ;~ ,I ,I i,1 i I I ,I I: II II I I I 'tbe Bethell Planning Ccmnissioo Page 'I'I>o Hc:MeVer, ~y did not like to travel the longer distance for the shart growing ""''''''nwe have in the Pacific Northwest. As an additional factor, c::perating costs on a farm even of this apparently large magnitude could not begin to match those of the Calif=ti.a faI:ller who gr~ hundreds, if wt thousands, of acres of one type of prrrlnce su::h as lettuce. I am sure you are aware that the Califomia narket is the c:cintrolling price factor in ~ Seattle area, and that part of the reason is the vacuum cooling process ~y employ in taking the heat out of their product :imredi- ately after harvest and keeping it refrigerated to destination. This greatly enhances the can:ying qualities of produce. One of ~ reasons I decided to begin faDlling in the Kent Valley, besides assuring a continuity of supply for my shipping business, was the instal- lation by Northwestem Ice CaTpany of Portland of a vacuum cooler located in the Kent Valley. Tm principal investor was a Mr. Walt Henningsen. It was his intent to process at a given price per unit, the product of 'the local growers a."ld thereby have it contain the same can:yi.ng qualities of vacuum oooling that Califo:::ni.a produce had. Due to an insufficient supply of lettu::e and ~' ot'er reasons too nurnercus to ."",lv'lrate at this point, the vacuum cooling ope! ..tion in Kent was close:l down in 1961. Along with this and the other reasons rrentioned ab:lve, I dis""",,; iTriUed fanning in 1963 and 00ga.'l to divert my attentions not only iran the shfpping business and growi."1g, but to ~ prepackaging of vegetables in which I am nr:M prin- cipally engaged. In 1971 Dareni.c Vitulli approached lle as to my degree of interest in leasing all or part of his farm cx:mplete with eqW.fIlEllt. He explained to lle the econanic reasons my h: was considering abandoning faDlling l:ut thought perhaps, because of my prepackaging business, that I w:JUld want a captive s=ce of supply locally ffJ!' my prcrl.uct. I explained to him that I had been through the lo.t1ole process of tl:ying to integrate a growing and shipping operation in 1959, and knew the ec:cnanics then could not support it and further knew that the situation had deteriorated since then. I explaine:i to Mr. Vitulli my reasons why and in:licated to him absolutely no interest in his proposal for leasing the land and mac:hine%y. In all my :years of experience with prcduce shipping and packaging I have con- sidered the Vitulli Farm one of the rrcst consistent producers of high quality produce. They have al;.';) been one of the best managed fa1:ms, using every llethcd avai.l.cble to cut costs and iIrprove efficiency. ~r, this cannot offset the Calif=ti.a daninanoe of the local narket. '. - oont - -t;.6- . r ' , ::,..:.-. .ff. ,... I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ~ Eothell Planning Cc:mnission Page 'n1ree Anyone fall'i 1 i "... with t12 evolution of fresh prc:duce narketing in the greater Seattle area will undoubtedly confix:m what I have outlined above, , and to go into further detail at this ti.!le ~uld probably be redundant to what ~ may have already learned. I WJUld be happy to confiDn any of the stateJIents that I have made in this letter. Ycurs !'!:incerely, ~~~'"~ RayKi al llK:jd . .. . . -~~- . - .- . I I -.. u - - ~ Seattle, Y/ashingtoll JaRuary 18,ln4 .:.... . DOlIl Vitulli _:~ell Fume , 16-N.E.195th ~lhel1j Washington ,:J and I ha...e done a lot 0: business tog~th'lr for :::lny years and I have always ~spected your good judge~ent--you have be~n a winner whenever there has been a ~;:'1ce t~ ~'ill. ::a have asked me for rrr; adviee aboiJt the farm operation. ~OYi, I am sorry to have ~ull you---that farm is a beautirul piece of ground and I know the happiness that . get out of seeing the lettuce, romai~e, c.bba~c etc., growing. The hell of it :5, you cant gr0'\7 it alld sell it for a prtJfit any more. Times hove cnan..ed. I :1ve seell it cOL':ing probably faster thal1 y~u in ti.;;t I have been involvl'd in the J::tual sale 0: the rndse at shipping point and also at the recei.'"ing end. I~ntr years ago we used to ship fruit:: .1nd vegetables 98% of the time via rtil. "Ins full cars of lettuce, cl':Hry, caul...flol.er,'";<::.,b:<Je, :',-r.."es, citrus ~.'_i.ts, elo!,t, corn, in other words pract1ciill;,- everyt~ll;; thlt the .,rod'lce 'hoube har....leci. ';sL of ~h<;se cars came i-,to a terniH.l m.rket s'lch as Sea~tle. (Yo~ will rem~:!Iber . ns in the b:-okerage business fcor years) The broker would 11-11 out ,_pf these cars ::, the jobbers (there were lots 01' the:' in tho~e days) ill lots of 25 ,~a'-more and lJ!e of the larger jobbers would take a st.rti~ht cltr. In turn these jobbers would , tribute this mdse out to the little stores ill all neighborhoods. 'nlere were not q of these big super markets at th..t ti[!,e. .L.:l.tor was chea;: and help plentyful. . the months that there '"as local prod:.:ce roe '.vo,;ld lay 0:1 bringi:'!,;; in this out of tote mdse becacse your local ;;roduce T10lUcl t::: fr,~sh~I:. O'Jr rail cart; 'Would take tlr,,,"st 5 dil;rS ::nd soo,etiI:l'!s ':lore to go t this f;;.r.' Tilis !;'lve ;;0:' growers here :.oeally a c.ia "'lC~ to t:!O"J'C :to..rro T.:d ~e . , L~ .ll ch:;.r.ged. Ir; the first pl;.=e tho r~ ;r~ lkt ~f) ll!;'- JY jol:-=ers left in the ~il ~s there used to be. The little jo~ber has been repl;.ced by the big oper.tor ' o can ta!:e core ':If 200 stor~s l'!.sier .....,d better tan the lit1.le jobber used to do..- th just a feTl st':lres. eke are the Ir.ost ilr.portant f..ctor in the produce b-..Isiuess today. 1Ie IcnC"lr th;t Tie In lo.d a tr;1ck in Southern CaliroI':'li:l '\'11 th ci trllS J gre..pes, letturoe, rOll;Oline a:1d t ever we want and have the truck in here in ~eattle backed into the dock in not :Tor 30 hours. '!be mdse. was all precoole~ at shi?Jjlin~ :,oint ;,r.d the lettuce Yi...5 '~ocooled, it uas loaded o~ a reLri~erOlt=d tr~c~. So, when U.e tr~ck .r;.'~v~s here -l! mdse. looks like it just Ciij.e cut of th~ field. 'at set ll!e 1lTong, I do not t:i:!h to s:.y thllt YOll loc;.l &rowers do a poor job. You r one go the extr'l mile to T.lOlke r.h.t ;rou have attr;lctive a::d Ol ;:ood pock. '!he -t:07- ... ,~~ # ... .... . ~ . .- ct is, YClIl cannot CO:1trol the we~th-r. I ;1ave se~n it t:iJr.e :.nd tbe again I':he:; io~ :Jd have beautiful letti.lr.~ all read:; .O_Jr harve~,t ..:.d ,Ie '1'/0 'ld be re:ody to u::e local :tt.ce. :lhat ha;:>"ens7 It starts r;;il1iT.~, gets the cro;> good _nd wet the., the SUA :.... out and cooks it. Your lettuce even thc YOIl c.:t it today will not stand up with :'c..lifornia and Arizo:'!a hydrocooled lett~ce. At ,,-ou k:10l", the hydrocool~r that was :t il1 out at Kent failed be"a~e th::re was not e:'!ouc~ lettuce grown il' the whole area . ~).~ it pay. e rc't;il store business hOlo changed along with oth r thi' es. ~:st of the business is ~e r.ith larGe super markets., ~ener:.l1y these s~per ~arkets have a chain of stores 'from 3 to 75 or lOO in the :lore... Tile~' set up their :.dr:'s a rleek In adva!lee. In :ber words, we have to give out prices on Vonday and TuesdOl;" oJ: this week for all a::d ;)t rill be the following week of ;iedllesday thru !aturd:oy. We can talk to California Arizona--they dont have tCl worry a~out rain or bad r.eather a~d they have almost 12 !ltlls of growing 'l'/!!ath"r so~' they dont ?l0n-y a~o::.t ~ivir.g us a price to work on for ;e !ollowi!.g week. Yf1th you, hO:'l do you lrnO"l for sae ~_t you C:Oll even get the ,ttace out? So, this is the r'Jate th;t the tra;!!! t..kes. Its 'lot beca~se we do not ~t to do busi::ess here 10cOilly, 1 t.s just pl:l1n s:u:.~le [:scts of being able to do ~iness easier ar~ safer out of Cali:cr~ia or Arizon.. ..e~e big Super l:arkets a,"e much morel deI:;a""'~n!; ti1=,;l tile old store keepe:!' ~af. The:r, "e :IS ill. the Prod:;ce ousiness h....,." :11gn priced help. If the :.::!:-e comes i~ to the ~~e in ~ shoddy appeara~ce, they :~~t fool with. it .t ~ll--they j~st s~~d it back 'lI' eredit. If t'le prod'lee ::.:-eaJis down on the st;;.r.d in t:1' store--thc)' selOoi it bOle;'. ~:igJre t~at the shel! life o~ 1~~;1 lett~ce is so short th.t wh4t i~ r.ut ar,d ~~ ~llv~l"e~ into the jobbi:1g house to.i;t~' fl1:.>alc!. be 1:1 the store 1:y tOI:1on-UTi. :!,;-drocc.oled .tt"ce is bOod for 11) c.a'lS to t1fo weel:s at le;.st. ' I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0;.... ....~.. Y""J. r.ill rerner:ber I suggested to ;ru back ir. 19S2 or l7S3 that )'ou'tr:r-to UCTI a =Oil of rutabagas? You roli:-.,u one ~nd they were ::~"-.ltirl:l, t.1, ,."1,~e '\'lAS even good. ::.l.t ha;Jpened--;ro': i.:e%ican help lel't just wh:n .:,t 'I.~r tirJC to harvest so you had a , tic: getti~g them out. Tol-'}~' ~h6ught about ~otatoes--yol c~n and did raise a .' e crop of spu:l.:.. The OT.lJ. thinil il!:, wi t:. ~le ":~-. acres 0.:- lond th._to 'lou h.:;.ve, J ca::not set 1lp to do the job ::conOl'lic~:l:r (it T;C'uld cost you at least 150,000.00 :.l set .lp rite) The boys on the e.t:t.rn jJa:-t of th-1 I;t.te c_::. .i.!forci to do this as ':0:'1 get.. larger yield pt'r acr~ "I'd _1:"" ::..:-r. fro;;' ~OO to lO or l5,ooo ~:res. , "o~ :\5 i.!:;lossibl., for~to hire :le1p ':;'!O;" core;; t ~ess th.11 2.00 oer hoa "!ld the kind of :'1" that. Trill r....:...l: for this wa3c is nc.t the top. If;; lta:1h;s ;;;1':; alllbition, he c.u il (C.T.l to sCllle prodllee 'l'Iar~r.Q~e ::1:1 w~rk ~Th:rc i ts c~"l, dry, warr. ....d C1C.;lIJ a;d I ~71 tC' start rr.th 5.85 per hour Wl.th t!:.:e ",rd o::e baL after 40 ho;;.r~. IT ;'ou nad ~ p..:; this killd of wace you wo"J.ld have toJ G:t 1.00 "'.r heaC: :,t tlie i~. for ~'our lettuce. Il I sdd ;:efore, the::e C.u.i!orl'i2 ;,;::1 ,\ri -,uT... gr':l\'it;rs h..,v" all::ost 12 co'!ths of u::min;; :'~th~:-, if the)" do..t lI;ake it on "1''' cr",', tc.e:f COlI; h';ve ~ c;:.:;;,:e to !:lake it OR a'loth r. ;~u are stllck here with a. three mont.h j;I'J\':il.lg ul::_1 ::Ii'ci .s i:.r ~5 I am conc..rneci, you ~ lIever be able to make it grC'YIing ve,;et:odes or "OJ' tlli;;(; elte t~t I c.n think -, ,sur~l~r suggest that yeu ,ut thoat pl..ce ..p for SOL.e ot~:~r ~::. '. , . Sincere~~ y urs, . ,~.:.Aa1;"~t ci.::- ec.e.L<.:.c~' - r- .)- ~~ '7~H I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I [I APPENDIX F COMPREHENSIVE PLAN MAPS -69- KING COUNTY GENERAL DEVELOPMENT GUIDE Selected Policies. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1. LAND USE PATTERN A. Urban/Suburban Communities PC.101 PC-102 Urban/suburban communities sho!Jld. consist of urban centers, neighborhood centers, residential areas and open space. Each community should contlin employment, service and housing opportunities. Urban centers should contain a wide variety of activities, including commercial, industrial and residential uses, to provide employment, shopping, service and urban-residential opportuni- ties for the community. 2. GROWTH STRATEGY A. Cesignated Urban/Suburban .communities PC-203 PC.204 PC-205 PC.206 PC.207 The quality of established urban/suburban communities should be maintained and enhanced. Residential and employment growth should be encouraged within designated urban/suburban communities. Decisions on where to encourage residential and employment growth within designated urban/suburban communities should consider the adequacy of public facilities and services and energy efficiency. New development within designated urban/suburban communi- ties should equitably share the costs for public facilities and services with existing residents. Public capital improvements should be provided to maintain and enhance the quality of designated urban/suburban com- munities. · The plan concept used in the General Development Guide recom- mends that growth occur in existing urban centers. Bothell is designated as such a center by the Guide. Policies here relate to location of and development in urban centers. -74- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1. . ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A. Loc.tion of Economic Activity EB.101 Increased economic diversity should be encouraged by planning for a full range of commercial and .industrial activities. EB-102 New firms and jobs should 10Catll in urban centers, neighborhood centers and Nral towns. These centers and towns should be planned to meet the transportation, location and service needs of a variety of economic enterprises. EB-103 Natural resource lands, inclUding forests, farmlands and mineral deposits should be conserved and used for resource industries. EB-104 Planning for economic growth should be coordinated with regional public and private economic development groups and other jurisdictions. EB-10S New firms should be encouraged to locate in the county when they employ local residents, employ the currently unemployed, . use energy efficiently and maintain the county's high,.quality environment. EB.106 Urban centers, neighborhood centers and Nral towns should be designated in order to indiCatll appropriate locations for economic growth, and to indicate where supporting public improvements will be encouraged. EB-107 Public spending and other incentives should be used to-encourage continued private investment in existing centers and towns. EB.108 Development of new centers and towns should be coordinated . with population growth and provision of public facilities and services. EB.109 The functions of incorporated centers and towns should be considered in planning for growth. The prosperity of these centers should be enhanced by development in unincorporated areas. - 7.5- -76- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 2. URBAN CENTERS, NEIGHBORHOOD CENTERS AND RURAL TOWNS: LOCATION, DESIGN AND USES A. Geno..1 Location and Cesign Policl.. EB-201 Centers and towns should be located where they are easily acces. sible to the surrounding community by private vehicle, transit and by foot. EB-202 Location of centers and towns should vary with planned popula- tion density, in order to ensure an adequate markat area popula- tion to support the retail and service activities within each center. EB-203 Compatability between land uses within and adjacent to centers and towns should be enhanced through landscaping, building placement, traffic control, and other techniques to minimize potential conflicts between uses. EB-204 Centers and towns should have the following improvements before developme'!t of business and industrial uses: A. Paved streets and improved walkways; B. Curbs and gutters, or other appropriate provision for drainage control; C. Approved water supply and wastewater treatment provisions; . D. Off-street parking for visitors and employees; E. Adequate provisions for internal circulation within the center or town; and F. Controlled traffic access to arterials and intersections. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I B. Urban Conten B.1. Urban Cento, Location and Cosign EB-212 Urban centers should be planned to accommodate a variety of Commercial, industrial and residential land uses. Parcel sizes should be adequate to acco~modate a full range of activity. EB-213 Urban centers should be located near existing or planned popula- tion concentrations, so they provide easily accessible jobs, goods and services. EB-214 Community-scale urban centers should be located so that each contains a markat population of 40,000 to 150,000 people. They should be three miles apart in areas planned for a population density of 6,000 or more persons per square mile. In areas planned for lower density, thay should be farther apart. EB-215 Regional-scale urban centers should be located so that each contains a market population of 150,000 or more people. They should be at least rIVe miles apart and at least three miles from the nearest community-scale urban center in areas planned for a population density of 6,000 or more persons per square mile. In areas planned for lower density, they should be farther apart. so that each has an adequate markat population. EB-216 Regional-scale urban centers should locate at the intersection of two major arterials with access to a freeway interchange. . EB-217 Community-scale centers should locate at the junction of a secon. dary and a major arterial, or at the intersection of two major arterials. EB-218 Urban centers should be located in areas free from erosion, land- slide, seismic and coal mine hazards and on soils able to support intensive development. EB.219 Urban centers should be served by public sewers and public water; these utilities should be provided before or during development. EB-22o Designation and development of new urban centers should con- sider plans for existing urban centers. New centers should be located and development timed to minimize adverse effects on existing urban centers, inCluding those within cities. - ,"'1_ -78- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I EB-221 The following factors should be evaluated in determining whether to accommodate growth in existing urban centers or to designate new centers: A. Growth capacity of existing centers or proposed new centers, including land capacity, transportation network, transit service, and utility service; B. Center location in relation to existing population and ex. pected population growth; C. Land and location requirements of the expected economic growth sectors; and D. Effect of new center development on plans for development of existing centers. EB-229 Access to urban centers should be limited to arterials, to dis. courage traffic through surrounding neighborhoods. EB.23Q Urban centers should include provisions for off-street parking to reduce congestion on arterial streets. Parking areas should be landscaped to improve their appearance and to aid in drainage control. EB-231 Business and industrial firms should be encouraged to minimize parking area while also preventing parking on arterials and collec- tor streets. Parking requirements should be lower in areas with frequent transit service, or where joint use of parking can reduce total parking needs. EB-232 Business and industrial firms should be encouraged to provide rooftop or underground parking. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I !I APPENDIX G BO'IHELL KOLL CENrER NORlH CREEK RELOCATION SUPPLEMENrARY INFORMATION Prepared For The Ken Company In Response To EIS Review COImIents ~fay n, 19S1 Prepared By: Mr. ~lartin L. Penha1legon, Hs. Patricia J. Butler OORTON DENNIS & ASSOCIATES, INC. 6133 Sixth Avenue SOuth Seattle, Washington 9Sl0S (206) 767-3456 Horton D'mnis & Associatu, Inc. . Consulting En~7;n;:,'rs . S;:attl", \'(~lSJ,ington - 7!f) - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I KOLL - BOIHELL - INWSTRIAL PARK SUPPLEMENI'AL INFORMATION - NORm CREEK TABLE OF CDNrENI'S I. LE'ITER TO RODGER FAGERHOIM II. APPENDICES o Appendix A - o North Creek Analysis - Average Number of Days/Years Stream Flow Exceeds a Given Flow Rate Appendix B - State of Washington Water ~it;y Criteria- Class A Streams o Appendix C - Sumnary of Present Water Quality Problems in Small Streams - Sammamish River System Appendix D - Salmonid Temperature Requirements AppendiX E - Letter f:rom State Departm~t of Fishe~es o o . . - - Freeze Core Sampling' Data - Time Cycle and Species of Fish Runs in North Creek o Appendix F - Timberline Reclamation Inc. Preliminary Study For The Waters of North Creek - EXisting Stream Assessment - Recomnended Improvments Salmon Spawning - Ground Data Retrieval (Washington State Department of Fisheries) - Sumnary of METRO North Creek Water Sampling - Entymology Data - Existing Vegetation,. III. LIST OF REFERENCES Horton Dennis & Associates, Inc. . Consulting Engineers . Seattle, Washington -8::>- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I HIo.,rtL'''' D.."nnis cl Assaci,;zt.zs, Inc. l JHllD) 1 Con$u/ti"~7 En~1itlct!r$ ~lay 11, 1981 ~lr. Rodger Fagerholm President mE KOLL CQ,\lPA.W 2021 - ISZnd Avenue N.E. Redmond, ll'ashington 9805Z SUBJECT: BOTIIELL KOLL CB.TER - NQ!m{ CREEK LOll' FLOW CR~,"'"EL ALTER.'\A.TIVE DESIGNS, GENERAL srREA.\f DESIGN CQ,\SIDER~TIOXS, A\'D, srREA,\\ WATER QUALITY A'-:ALYSIS Dear Rodger: This letter is for the purpose of addressing.the.~~rious aspects and concerns brought up during the EIS rev'iew cor.rnents regarding the relocation of :-;orth Creek through the subject project. Of the various demands being placed on ~rth Creek - Hj"draulics, Fisheries, Recreational, Aesthetic and Adjacent Development uses, this report is to. focus and ans~er questions on the first ~~ (Z) mentioned - Hj'draulics and Fisheries. Stream Hydraulics Considerations The relocated channel of North Creek is sized to handle the estimated .100 year flood event with a l-l/Z foot of freeboard. The estimated 100 year flow is 760 cfs. I\bile there is presently no established flood plain, HUn is presently studying this reach on ~orth Creek and their preliminary study infonnation has been incorporated into development of the present plan. The final approved HUn Flood \'lay Study is not expected for one to t\,~ years. As The Koll Center b~ll adequately dike the site from the 100 year flood eleva- tion, the final HUn study will reflect this. Questions have been raised regarding the sizing of the lo,," flOl"r channel and the number of days per year "a ter b~l1 be out of the low flo\\' channel and flooding portions or all of the Green Belt/Flood Plain area. As part of this report, we have studied the various alternatives available in sizing the relocated low flow channel. Il'e have used as our base for his- torical flow data, the ten (10) year period 196Z-197Z. This is the ten (10) most recent years of flow data that is available on ~orth Creek. We have reduced this ten (10) year flow history to detennine the number of days or portion of days ~rth Creek can be expected to be out of a low flow channel for a given capacity. The results of this ten (10) year stuuy are somewhat different than the one (I) year results presented in our April ISth letter. (See Appendix A for st.mmlary of this study.) (1[33 SiXtll .:\L".... S,,'1It17, S.....llll.... \\':l::1l1'I1<7t,,'1I t)3[L'3 . 1'/1..111.., ,(17-3-/56 -8/- 11,,'rl,,'u (J"."u;::: f:f" _L=:::""","i..,!.:.::, lu.:. . . ! . ll,.l,,;;:: f"':7 E . u9'''....:rs . ~.:l.ltll..... U-:'5I,i":lt"'1l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ~lr. Rodger Fagerholm President TIlE KOLL WIPANY . Re: Bothell KeIl Center - North C~eek Low. Flow ~el Alternatlve Designs General Stream Deslgn Conslderatlons, And, Stream , Water Quality .~lysis ~lay 11, 1981 Page T",'D It should be pointed out the USGS data used is for the peak flo",-s. The peak stream flow (daily) may occur for only a short period of time (part of a day). This distinguishment is important because if we indicate the stream will be out of the flow channel for thirty (30) days per year, lie really mean that during thirty (30) days of an average year, the peak stream flow exceeded the capacity of the channel and would have been forced out of the low flow channel for a portion or all of each of the thirty (30) days. The low flow channel for this study is a trapezoidal rock lined section. I~e had planned to incorporate a split channel in the large Green Belt area and include logs, natural pools, ripple sections and etc. All of these must occur in the low part of the 10li flow channel to prevent limiting the hydraulic capacity of the stream. Where a split channel is used or significant obstructions in the channel occur, the channel capacity must be increased accordingly. In compiling this low flow channel study and revie",ing the daily flow for a ten (10) year period, lie observed the highly variable flow rates of North Creek. Designing this stream relocation so-that all of the demands (Fisheries, Hydraulices, recreation, lrild1ife, aesthetics, etc.). placed on it will be met at all flow rates, may be very difficult.' In anyone (I) year, the August average flow rate is six to seven (6-7) cfs while the January peak Can exceed 300 cfs, lvith an average flow of over one hundred (IOO) cis for the month. Having completed this low flow channel study, we 1>"Quld recoll1llend this channel be sized to handle flolis of the ISO-ZOO cfs range. This I>'tluld necessitate increasing this low flow channel from approximately ten feet (IO') w~de to approximately twenty feet (20') wide. This twenty foot (20') wide channel "'"Quld still meander w~thin the diked area of the stream (minimum 66' Idde). Sub-channels will be cut naturally by the stream flow to accommodate the low six to seven (6-7) cfs flow rates within the low flow channel. Logs and boulders and other stream diversions can be constructed to improve the fisher~es as- pects of the creek as required by the Department of Fisheries and suggest- ed by Rich ~lcIntyre. These fish habitat structures must be constructed only to affect the sub-channel!'; and average stream flows and beloli, Structures should not be built in the stream that 1,~11 effect the hy- draulic carrying capacity of the stream or we will be required to increase the dmnnel section; height of dikes and widen the Green Belts accord- ingly. TIle final stream design w~ll incorporate the above stream requirements. -8..z- I I I I I I I I ! I I I I I I I I I I I ~Ir. Rodger Fagerholm President TIlE KOLL co.'lPANY Re: Bothell Koll Center - North Creek Low F101~ Channel Alternative Designs General Stream Design Considerations, And, Stream , I~ater Quality Analysis ~lay 11, 198J. Page Three It should also be noted, construction of a significant number of fish habitat structures and devices to channel the flow will not only have a significant initial cost but also can have a continued maintenance cost. Care in design must be used to prevent failure and erosion of any of these devices during peak flows as they could cause plugging of. a dol-o'I1Stream bridge or culvert (particularly the 19Sth Bridge Inth columns in the stream bed) and cause a potential hydraulic jump and possibly over-top the dikes. The final design will ensure these de- vices are .permanent and ","ill not cause problems. . Lindscaping along the creek channel is critical ",'hen considering the hydraulic carrying capacity of the stream. In our preliminary calcu- lation we have assumed a ''l-mungs 'n'" factor of .04. The 'n' factor relates the relative amount of obstruction to flow of a channel. (i.e., rock lined channel; vs. cement lined; vs. grass lined, etc). The 'n' factor used 1,"Quld represent a stream with rock lined channel, light bushes (overhanging) and grasses for the flood plain. If large trees, heavy deep brush. and grasses to the height of the one hundred (I 00) rear. flow is planted, the channel size will have to be increased during final design to accolllllodate these obstructions. This type of landscaping ","ill also increase the maintenance of the creek. Some discussion has been given on providing sedimentation for the creek flow and providing a sedimentation de..i.ce at the Xorth end of the project. The major sediment load of a stream is carried during heavy flows when the velocities are relatively high. This sediment load at times, as we under- stand from ~Ir. Davies, is very large. Designing a stretch to slow the stream down in these conditions would again, require an increase in chan- nel section and additional diking. Furthennore, the channel north of the Kell Site is not adequate to handle peak stream flows. Slowing the stream down at the North property line "'"Quld cause additional flooding of the farm to the North. State law would prohibit this as Kell "'"Quld be liable for flooding caused by any back-water. created as a result of this. Further, such a divice will create a significant maintenance problem and l-o"Quld require Kolltoclean up pollution caused by nature 'and development to the North. We. feel it is important that this Bethell-Kell Center not add to the pollution level of the stream but see no obligation or significant benefit that can be gained for Kell to treat the natural and man-made pollution from the Xorth of the development. If [I..nt..,,, D...u,,;s {.:;. .-\SS",~;"tt;:s6 [,,'-... . l"\.Hl~L:It;"~7 E"~1;"\..~..rs . 5....,,'Iu/..., \r~JSI,i":7ta" -83- ~lr. Rodger Fagerholm President 1HE KOLL CCNPANY Re: Bothell Ko11 Center - North Creek Low F1()\o; Channel Alternative Designs General Stream Design Considerations, And, Stream , Water Quality Analysis. ~lay 11; 1981 Page Four a sedimentation structure is constructed, it should be placed near the North Bridge and then only for moderate and low flows. Some sedimentation problems presently exists in this reach of North Creek, particularly in the lower reach near the N.E. 195th Street Bridge. As a portion of the stream development and bridge ,,-'idening, this stretch \001.11 require cleaning. Some future continued stream maintenance will also be needed, but we reconrnend the stream be designed to minimize sedimentation problems by maintaining stream velocities above 2-1/2 - 3 feet per second. For those areas \,nere this is not possible, particularly l()\o; flow cond- itions, and where it is important in maintaining clean gravel for fish spmming acti vi ty, provisions should be made for sediment removal per- iodically. Fisheries Considerations In assessing the associated fisheries impacts with the relocation of ~orth Creek and proposed Ko11 development, "-<iter quality is an important consid~ eration. l\'orth Creek is designated as a Washington "Class A" stream \vhich means "-<iter quality should meet or exceed requirements for substantially . all uses including potable water, supply, fishing; s,,-inrning, fish and shell- fish reproduction and rearing. North Creek is a tributary to the Samnamish River Kater Shed which in turn is a "Class AA" water (extraordinary). .As presented in the 1975 303(a) Kater ~ality ~lanagement Plan, the Samnamish River has the follO\dng "-<iter qual1ty ehc~enc~es: - ~ o Both DOE [I] temperature standards and RIBCO [2] criteria shown in the RIBCO stud)" Appendix B, ''Water ~ity Analysis," are violated during SUllIDer months annually because of inadequate shading. o Both dissolved ox}"gen standards and criteria are violated during late summer at least one (I) out of two (2) years because of high temperatures and resulting saturation dissolved oxygen concentrat- ions. o Total coliform standards and criteria are violated regardless of season because of contamination from tributary streams and non- point sources. [I] Department of Ecology [2] River Basin Coordinating Committee 11"'rf...,,, n....""i$ f';' ...\$,::-...,....;..1/....$. 1,,1.... . . I . ,... . l ..'''$11 IlIh~ r:Il..'IIh.....:.r$ -84- . ~......t/tl..... lr::'::/1",r..7iL'" I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I ~lr. Rodger Fagerholm President THE KOLL CCNPANY Re: Bothell Kell Center - North Creek Low Flow Olannel Alternative Designs, General Stre3111 Design Considerations, And, Stream Water Quality Analysis ~ay 11, 1981 Page Five Nitrate criteria are violated at least once every ~.u (2) years during the winter months because of contamination from tributary streams and land adjacent to Sanmamish River. Total phosphate criteria are violated approXimately annually during late SUImler because of -contamination from tributary streams and land adjacent to Samnamish River. - Fisheries requirements for maximum temperatures are exceeded during the surmner months. Downstream migration of 'cutthroai- trout, steelhead and chinook salmon occurs during these monthS. "Water quality modeling conducted for. this s~~ indicated that "-"ater quality aroblems will not l.Jlcrease due to proJected an use chandes. A s~gnificant ecrease ~"ater quality cmiCl1ITons ""as notea:o~for e tributary Swamp Creek which is projected to double residen~ial and commercial acreage." o ,; o (Source:. ~IE LRD 303(e) Water Quality Management Plan, Cedar-Green Basins; September, 1975.) --:- Appendix "B" of this report states water 'quality parameters for Class A streams. Sampling information along Xorth Creek was obtained from ~IETRD and is S1.IlIIrnarized in the Timberline Reclamations report included as Appendix "F' of this study. Generally, in comparing the ~IETRO sampling data to the requirements for Class A streams we arrived at the following conclusions: I) Temperature - Generally falls between good to optimum conditions. As lvould be expected, there is a slight increase during "-"ann weather months. However, at no time is there an indication that temperatures reach up or dOI..n to a point critical for aquatic fauna. (See Appendix "D" Salmonid Temperature Requirements.) Dissolved Oxygen - Does not seem to pose a significant problem. Standard cntena (ref. Appendix A) indicates 8.0 mg/l or above is acceptable. The range for !\orth Creek at the site is 9.4- 13.3 mg/l. Ho""l!ver, during periods of excessive tel!lperature in the stream this situation I,uuld decline. ~IETRO' s data, hOl,ever, 2) I [l.lrt~lll D~~"III;~ f.-f' &.\$s~ci..tt':$, [II,:. . l'.."1l511ltill~1 1:,,:l,."....:rs . ~.,:~zul.... lr:t$/tin;knl -85- 3) indicates that, in general, temperature and DO are not problem areas. (Ref. Appendix "C" - Surmnary of Present \later Quality in Small Streams.) Total Colifonn - Astronomically high, as would be expected w"ith the surroundlJ1g agricultural activity. ~ledian value of total colifonn for a freshwater body is stated at 240 organisms/IOO ml. ..Readings at the site from the ~lETRO data give a. range of SID - 62,000. Fecal Colifonn - Readings range from 21-4400 organisms/l 00 ml. Obviously a nolation of Class A standards. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ~~. Rodger Fagerholm President TIiE KOLL CQ\lPANY . Re: Bothell Koll Center - North Creek Low Flow Channel A1 ternatJ. ve Designs, General Stream Design Considerations, And, Stream Water Quality Analysis r-lay 11, 1981 Page Six 4) 5) 6) Su~ended Solids - Periodically .high readings. dunng penods of high flow and peak ron-off. highest month. Ni tr&tes, Phosphates, Heavy ~letals - All fall wi thin acceptable parameters~ Although the general chart "for North Creek in Appendb: - C sh~~s.these items as periodic violations, the readings done at the site by METRO have no evidence of violation. Hm,'ever, violations relating to nitrate, phosphate, ammonia contamination are probably related to agricultural activity: High S.S. occurs January is the Generally, the primary problem in the stream relating to water quality is colifonn. However, it is. vitally important to keep the stream temp- eratures dOI,n' and the stream well oxygenated. The project, as stated in Timberline Reclamation's report, will lower stream temperatures thus increase the related DO content. Removing the 140 acre site from agricultural activity will preclude colifonn, and phosphate-nitrate discharge at the site. To ensure the latter, the nat- ural vegetative plantings planned along the stream and Green Belt by Earth Enterprises will not require spray insecticides which carry airborne pollut- ants as well as grO\n1dMlter carried nutrients back into the stream. As the stonn runoff will not be discharged into North Creek, there will be no contribution of heavy metals. The constituents from the stonn water ....-ill be further reduced by sedimentation settlement in the catch basins and stonn 1",...",., n,~nlf;~ f';' .\ ~~"''';.lf,~~. Tn,. . ~ I . (.'1"0('11 Ilff,"t 1:".,;"".....,.0(' . ..::::.....flll... l\';,~/r;n,."..,.. -8b- I I . I I I I ,. . I I . I I . . . I I ~~. Rodger Fagerholm President mE KOLL Co.\IP.4.!W Re: Bethell Kell Center - North Creek Low Flow Channel Alternative Designs, General Stream Design Considerations, And, Stream Water Quality Analysis ~ay 11, 1981 Page Seven retention pond prior to discharge to the Sammamish River. Discharge to the river offers maximum dilution; hOI.ever, the pond design and sediment traps lrill help to ensure that the stonn water leaving the Koll Site will not con- tribute to I;ater quality problems in the S3lI1IlaIIli.sh. Appendix "E'" of this report contains a letter from the State Department of Fisheries relative to the process of freeze core sampling and also contains infonnation as to the time of year different species utilize the North Creek corridor. Steve Jenks from the Department was not able to pinpoint the- ex- act location of the freeze core samples already taken on North Creek. _However, they indicate the geometric mean diameter of the gravel to be greater than acceptable for fish spal,ning and rearing. As the percentage of sediment content (dirty gravel) goes up on the scale, the percentage of fines goes down. For Coho the geometric mean diameter should be less than 3.3 lIIII but greater than .104. The geometric mean diameter, dg (m) for 1978 per the en-' closed Fisheries data "as 8.5620 for 9-18-78. \~hi1e this data, because of its ~on-specific sampling location-cannot be used as relevant information now, it \,-ould be a criterion to be considered in actual stream design. khat t~e freeze core sampling did indicate coincides with on-site observations by both the ': Horton Dennis & Associates staff and Patty Crumley of Fisheries; . namely, _the existence of a significant amount 'of sediment in the existing streambed, pre- cluding any current spawning activity at the project site. The enclosed fish run activity data indicates the stream is active through most of the year. Consequently, we again emphasize the importance of close coordination "i.th the Departments of Fisheries and Game by all involved with the stream relocation. at the actual time of opening the new stream. This will also be a requirement of the Fish & Game Hydraulic Pennit. The existing stream channel consists of a trapezoidal "ditch" configuration and has an approximate 654 cfs capacity at overfloloing. The channel is straight through the subject property Idth one (I) significant change in . gradient tOl,ard the Northern portion of the stream section. Specifically, this change in gradient occurs at approximately slightly North of the mid- point of the 2600 lineal foot exi3ting channel. There are about three (3) notably undercut bank areas along the stream. However, tl,-O (2) out of three (3) are heavily silted. The top of the stream reach on the KoII property, =ely approximately the first one-hundred-fifty feet (ISO') has l!t.'rt~l" {J.:""is f:-f' A.S.~C.l,:ir..tl':$, [,,1.... . 1.""'''$ult;''~7 E"~7;"",".:r$ . S.:..lftli!, \\''.:zsl,in9t...~1l -87- ~Ir. Rodger Fagerholm President mE KOLL CQ.\lPA.'N Re: Bethell Koll Center - North Creek Low Flo\-l O1annel Alternative Designs General Stream Design Considerations, .And, Stream , Water Quality Analysis ~Jay 11, 1981 Page Eight good overhanging vegetation, good stream velocity, and is, physically speaking, the best portion of the stream. It is possible to save this upper reach and still implement the existing design. We \,,.ould suggest, "i.th the concurrence of the Department of Fisheries in our analysis, this upper portion of the stream be minimally disturbed. The new stream wili ultimately accomplish the following: I) Lower seasonally-high stream temperatures at the site through planting of indig~nous, rip~rian vegetation. _ 2) Increase dissolved oxygen levels, a factor critical in maintaining salmonid high survival rates by lowering the temperature in SUImler months resulting from I) and. increased riffle effects. 3) Enhance the pool-riffle effect in the stream; a factor notably missing with the . current stream c~mfiguration. 4) Create habitat acceptable for rearing and ultimately spa\ooning activity through introduction of fish habitat strucutres and pool-riffle effect. S) Allow the natural ecosystem to eventually produce a riparian Green Belt habitat. 6) Implement a controlled-access natural amenity benefitting both the human cOImlUIli ty and wildlife conm..mi. ty . 7) Divert off-site runoff a\"llY from North Creek into a more thorough settling system. The fact that the runoff from the development to the West and North could conceivably continue to be chmtped un- ceremoniously without benefit of any treatment into the creek could be a factor to bring about total degradation of this stream section eventually. lvnile this section of stream didn I t show heavy metal and nutrient readings \,hen the sampling \-.ra5 done several years ago, it is important to remember that these elements are notoriously ueleterious to small streams. Diverting the off-site runoff away from North Creek is an import:lnt step to preserving the integrity of the stream. Ii."t.", D.-.",,',:: .r:?" '::'::"L','.,I.._~, [",-, . L II 17 ..... lltl- \\ ,-I, '91" .. ~ - ... ("".: \..._ .. --... ~..H'$lI ;":7 1:1l~7;n",.~.rs . ......~L l,;, .~::-;, U -88- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I. I I ~lr. Rodger Fagerholm President mE KDLL Ca.IPA.'N Re: Bethell Koll Center - North Creek Low Flow O1annel Alternative Designs, General Stream Design Considerations, And, Stream Water Quality Analysis Nay 11, 1981 Page Nine 8) Provide an educational example and data for future stream re- location projects where large developments are involved. Careful and thorough analysis such as is currently being promW.gated by the Ke11 Company, can provide agencies, IIllJl1i.cipali ties, developers, consultants and educators with valuable background infonnation for similar ~ture projects. . . As consultants, we appreciate the opportunity for thorough research and a multi-disciplinary approach to this facet of the development. The detailed study being completed affords a scientifically and environmentally sound end 'result not only for this project but future ones as well. TOI.ard this end I,e Id11 continue to gather data such as offered in some of the comments in response to the Draft EIS as well as docunents and methodologies recommended by the State agencies. Should you have any questions regarding the above stated material, please do not hesitate to contact either or both of the undersigned. Sincerely, HORTON DD<NIS & .45SOCLA.TES, INC. ~~ ~artin L. Penpallegon, P.E. ~, / PJB/MLP:aec Patricia J. Butler froject Planner Enclosures cc: ~lr. Ken Peterson ) ~lr. Bill Derry ) ~Ir. Rich ~k:lntyre ) The Ko 11 Company Wilsey & Ham, Inc. Timberline Reclamations, Inc. E-1.:Jrt","n D.:,,,,;s f~ .'\;ss.."tl".i..zf':5, 11110.... . Clo.lllSult;n~7 E",in.:...rs . S':LtUI.:, \Y~t51,;ni1tl..l1t -89- - '='C - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I APPENDIX A NORTH CREEK ANALYSIS - AVERAGE NUMBER OP DAys/mARS STREAM FLOW EXCEEDS A GIVEN FLOW RATE - ;;2 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I APPENDIX B STATE OF WASHINGTON WATER QUALITY CRITERIA CLASS A STREAMs Table 2. Summary of Water Quality Criteria 1>1 Total Collfofm Imeen." ...1..1 1..pnl.....llloo ",II 131 TUfbldl.V' urUI 121 Tal" Dluolwed O. IS of Sa'wlllo"1 121 Tlmper'I"'1 IOff I Dluolnd O.nen Imom ,H Typlul ...... Pot.ble Wiler supplV; fishing ,swimming; fish and shellfish rePfoductiol' .nd ,",ing CI... Dfti"",lion for lulnlln. CLASS AA E.ceed. nquirrments .illl."lIu~1 50 70 5 5 8.5.8.5 7.0.a.5 IV... 0.101 110 110 60 55 9.5 7.0 Fresh Wiler Mlfine Wale' Potable Wiler supplV; fishing; Iwimmlog; fish .nd shellfish reproduction .nd 'lI,in9 lor CLASS A Meels or uceeds requiremen.. suhstantiall., .11 uses , Fresh Waler Mifine Wiler 240 10 5 6" 8.5.a.5 7.0.8.5 IV... 0.251 85 110 --.-- 61 110 8.0 ---'--6:0 , -1-- Industri.llnd liiricultufll Wiler suppl.,; fishing; shellfish reproduction .nd rearing CLASS B Meets or exceeds requirements for I t I 1,000 1,000 o o 8.5.8.5 7.0.8.5 IV.., 0.51 110 110 70 88 8.5 5.0 most uses F ,esh Wiler Milio, Wiler .' CLASS C Met:ls or exceed. requirements o' Il!lectf!d .nd essential uses 1,000 ,000 10 10 6.5.9.0 7.09.0 IV.r.0.51 110 110 75 72 5.0 4.0 PlSSlge; commerce . . , Cooling water; fish and nlvlQltion Fresh Wlter M"in. Waler 240 5 141 10 141 '4' POlable Waler supply; fishing; swimming; fish and shelltish reproduction and rearing LAKE CLASS Ml'!elS or uceeds r.quiremenU for illI us'!s - - - Shall nol.llcr.rct Ih~ "11"'.1 Ihown bttrond nll'''''III., oce""''''1 (OOCenl'lllons. No me"su'lilbl. chln91 "om n.llu,,1 condihons, - - - - - - - IJI 14' - Sholl! rlCl'"rt Ihe ".Iu.s shnwn. ShollI nol eaued thl ".luIs shown. - - - " 12 - - - - ..... - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I APPENDIX C SUMMARY OF' PRESEN'l' WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS IN SMALL STREAMS ~. SAMMAMISH RIVER SYSTEM - 9$- ~ I I I I I .- . . - Summary of Pr..nl Wator OullilY Pr"bl.~ In Small Strums' ~" w,.... o.w/,FY.S,.J",. V,-""," 01 $1''''' S,."wl.".1s. . VOfJl:lt,-Ul' al 0",,,,, *,,.,. OtwJi,., C"twu 0".. 1",1A:~tMr - .- N,,'hf!ftll '. !';....... T....... "'- DOE 0... r-... !;,.. "'" No ,..., 5....._ Su........ N..mo, Cd"'.... Tr"'J). 0.. TUlh .1...... ROD !iulottli.. ,.,......, h.,t. ..... I- Dol... 0..... - Th...,"IUfI u..... ..... X X X II X II II X X X ..- ..... eo... AA x II '! x X ...tl\l!tc,......... Mr.A'- C._If ..... X II II X X II X X ..- Lyutl C~ .... X X X X X X X X ,.,,~ Sluuqn lie.......,. AA x X X X X X X X X X X A.s"whC\. ..... .k...-,..c.~ ..... " X X X X ,. ~,.Cr..... ... X x II x. X x x X ~tJ'hrtCl. ....... Nor", Cr-k .. II X 'X X X X -An'MIIO . Cu.I 0_1t ...... - - .X x .x x x X ~lhfota. 4'" .oIfCr~ .. X X X X ~u..,~ - €.,.." C... .. X X X X .X X -,,",'NloUa ~...CI__ A X X X X X X ........110 I I I .1 I I Ltii'''U . ........... A.... I M'lfMI".:as: ................. ..~._I_ IlttKO~..__. __ .,... "72. '"-, 1~.. a M_.,_. .... ............. ~...._ I,. s.. rc I_tw, .- I"n..-..-...ft.,,,,,,..of s-t,__t c.....C-,. ......_.....~".....,...I......,.,. ......"'..... I I -. .. - I I I I . - 9G- I - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I APPENDIX D SALMONID TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS - 97- . T.bl.8 Tompo"lur~Acti.ity Relationships of Fish.. (OF ~.~ ...- . ""- - -. ...-. k....... -..... -.- ...- ..liP...... ....... . ___u. -.. . -.. -.. .-.. -. --.. -. - --.. -.. . ........". -. ._. -.. --... -. - "......1. -.. -.. -. .-.. -. - ",",-l~ -. a.p......- --... -.. j i . . j i :!! ! . J Ii J .:: I ::1 I.. I,. J7 .. ..u " TlbI. 9 -.;. Salmonid Tomper.fUre Requirem.nts ..- "<Ao ..... TOU"'1'1 "'''lit .....- -... T~.....ft ..- "<A' T_. .- -.... -~Tt- ...... MlQIIl.." -.. MfgilAn .- ...... MIGlIt4T1 "11101 .- ...... ........ lIt.lI.,. .- _TOo ...... .. 1111101 .- -.... lIIc;.aT! ...... .- -.... ....... ...... ....... ..- .-.. I j " 12 ... 12' ul .,! o I I ,,: . ! U! i "I o " .- .. ~.....4 .-... D.D. -c ., ..... .- ..... D.l). ..... .. .... . 111 u .... .t~ .. '00 . ... u. .. .... 11.2 ., tlJI . U.J II' I'I.J: .sa . .... 11a . u - .. . ~ : . : i ! i: . . j" ~ ;; .. so so sa .. .. .. .. .. so SJ .. ... ..I ... J7 -.lla .. "A I. n,J . 00 ,. " ... ju 4' , IU II., 1 ~:: I .. 4' JI'" 6) Is& .. u II,. I n .. It;" S1 .. .. "41 .. " SJ Sf " - .. ...... a.a. -c "',- .. IS , "I ..I o "1 "I so' ..: 1'.. .. ..I.. II ..., . D .. .. .. "67 .... .., "U 6.J .. II.J .., IS ..., . .. "" ... -. a.a ac ..... fl. ,. Ita '.I .. tie ... .. o .. 118 U . .2A ... "' ... .. 11. .. u -10 ... M" 1.1 ... ,. &., .. ... n.. .... n.' .. .., lU .. ..., ..,J ... ... .. .. Ila ... oo .. .. ... .,. .. .... II ,.. .- u,........ .....'01 ... .. ........ .'"DC "'1 Ba . U .. M U Je. ==---~-'__C1.....~_...._.___.>>..........__ 'OO .. .. ItJl ... .. n.' _ II .... II .. tlJI .,. ..~ ,... 1'1 .. ... .... .. .. ... ... ... '.. . It .. ... II .., M.' " ~~ -"96- ;: . I ~ Ji~ j in II isr . " 'n I , .4-'P?~~DI,( . : : . I ~ ~ ~ II ~ i .a . i .. so .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .., ; so. I sa, I :: "I u "., .. I 14 ". nj -,os- ..:.. i I . .... .. 10 010 .. .. so .. .. .. " -:. sa ..I .. .s ! . : ..- sa .. .. .. so .. .. .. ..... .. ".11 I 1 i ~I i ~! 73 jll:)L. "::1 U j .. I i I i : ., ~ : .a ii:iJiii ..; .. .. lO " :1 .. ... . OOj 00, ! 1 I t .: t I .. II .. . '0 " .. .. " .. .. " " .. '.. 7. .. I 1 I .1 1 1 1 1 -' 1 1 1 -I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I APPENDIX E LETTER PROM STATE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES FREEZE CORE SAMPLING DATA TIME CYCLE AND SPECIES OF FISH RUNS IN NORTH CREEK - 99- ROlL'N~<~~'>1l1 IUHN SFELL\1....." Governor ST" TE OF WASHIr-.CTON DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES 175 CeneralAdrrurosrwion Bu.iciing. . OlYmpia. Washington 96304 . (ZV6./75J-ooro . (SCAoN}lN-6600 May 4, 1981 i'"'.W - 5 19B1 Pat Butler Horton, Dennis'and Associates, Inc. 6133 Sixth Avenue South Seattle, Washington 98108 Dear Pat: Enclosed is an article describing the technical aspects of freeze-core gravel sampling (Enclosure #1). Also enclosed are two sheets which graphically illustrate the inverse reTationship of fine material in the streambed on sa1monid egg-to-fry survival rates (Enclosure #2 and #3) as demonstrated by various researchers. The last sheet is an abstract re- presentation of relative survival rates of salmon from one stage of develop- ment to the next. It is obvious that a slight reduction in eg9-to-fry survival rate can have a drastic impact on the number of- fish which return to the spawning grounds or are caught by sport and commercial fishermen. Several factors can influence the inter-gravel survival- rate:' 1) Number of spawners. Generally we assume that the more spawning fish we have the more fry that will be produced. This, however, is not always the case. If the number of spawners is extremely large or the spawning area is in some way reduced or limited, superimpOSition of redds may occur. This is the physical dis- lodgement or distraction of one female's eggs by the nest building activity of another. This phenomenon appears to be relatively rare in most Washington watersheds. 2) Stream flow levels. If, after egg deposition, stream flows are exceptionally high, causing streambed shift or are exceptionally low resulting in desiccation and/or the stranding of redds, survival can be dramatically reduced. . 3) Streambed composition. Basically,egg s.urviva1 depends on sufficient flow reaching the eggs to deliver dissolved oxygen and remove metabolic waste. The rate of flow is related to hydraulic potential (head) and permeability. It h~s been shown that as fine material in the stream- bed increase, permeability descreases. So when we gravel-sample to measure the percentage of fine material present, we are actually trying to get a handle on permeability. There are two other mechanisms by which fine materia1s.may reduce salmonid productiion in a stream and since they are somewhat more complex and not well documented I'll just mention them briefly here. - /00- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Pat Butler -2- May 4, 1981 1) In some cases we have noted eggs and alevin developing quite well in areas having a high level of fines. This usually occurs where spring or percolation flow pushes up from the bottom of .the stream- bed and most of the fines occur in the upper layers of gravel. __-"l -/\- ----.J\--^ -^ _.'." _'" _"." ._." '.. _ .... ~ 5....r ft,c:c: (!(oW -0'-, Cy,~'jl.'?;:-bO~-;':i--:=:.--;;-r) ~""),.f....;..C:.:..-..p,..L~~ine material '5"V',. ~;: ",'-. ~"{q?,'t{'!":f:F})fc'].'Fc~.CCC-\ ......' '-'--. ..... -,:':::1;t-"~-1'- -_(.J-.~ft _, "-~ c.~ . - .~ Perc or spring flow Typically in cases like this the fry develop to the point of emergence and then are unable to move up through the fine layers and die. . 2) As.the inter-gravel spaces.are filled in by' fine material the surface area. and "l iving" spaces are reduced. Aquatic productivity declines and the carrying capacity (i.e., rearing capaci~y) is "- reduced. .' If this seems' like a drawn-out explanation. remember that usually a number of factors interact to determine the salmonid prOduction in a stream. For example. Simply increasing the number of coho fry in a creek (i.e., increase in egg-to-fr,y production) will not increase the adult returns unless sufficient rearing area exists to support these additional fry. - Let us assume that the secti~n of ~orth Creek in question is found to be high in. fine materials ( > than 15% of the material ~ 0.88 mm). Any positive benefit resulting from rerouting the stream over clean gravel in a new channel would depend on a) if the fish presently utilize this section of the old channel for spawning habitat; b) spawning area is the limiting factor for salmonid production in North Creek, or c) has the source of the original contamination been identified and controlled? If not. any clean gravel' laid in your proposed channel may become contaminated quite rapidly. From our conversation I gather that your proposed channel would generally have lower water velocity than the existing channel. This may encourage recontamination since fine particles tend to settle out in areas of reduced velocity. If my explanations seem to have a pesimistic tone it is no reflection on the possible merits of your project. From past experience I have found that con- cepts which are sound on paper are difficult to demonstrate in practice. Every watershed is unique and as such requires individual study and taylor-made re- habilitation techniques. . Freeze-core gravel sampling is just one piece of the puzzle and has limited application. I would again suggest that you consider the increase in coho and trout rearing area as a major benefit arising from your project. -/01- Pat Butler -3- I commend you for your concern and diligence in attitude refreshing. I hope this note has been further question, please feel free to call. Si ncere1y, )b Steve Jenks Fisheries Biologist -/02.- May 4, 19B1 this matter and I find your helpful. Should you have . . . 1 1 I I I I I .. I I I . I I i 1 I' .. A'SAlB BY SIlE COlE All) YEAR: .0758 .1344 .1673 .2629 27,8294 'IYtItWl SLllGl 07.rta71 052Si8 1 1.1 549 340 152 90 n 68 87 35 05 422 .0463 .1397 .0754 .2274 16.3822 -I 07,0a77 052S79 1 1.2 119 37'1 211 126 97 72 70 40 19 514 ,0671 .1788 ,O~ .1994 10.3392 07. oa77 OS25i'S 1 2.1 345 140 OilS 64 47 '11 41 21 10 5 21 .0699 .m7 .1210 .2420 15.3SSS . 07, 0'G71 052Si'8 1 2.2 254 433 225 100 60 43 47 35 21 935 .0792 .1228 .0992 .1538 14.9343 1 A'IERA(ES BY SIlE COlE AND YEAR: .0658 .1453 .0928 .20'S7 14.2603 1 IlUlGS SLllGl 07.0940 0525i'8 3 1.1 000 305 ISO 6453 54 73 48 18 5 18 .1129 .2513 .1129 ,2513 6.7160 07.0940 0525iS 3 1.2 245 160 248 96 49 51 82 55 15 4 10 .0828 .2039 ,1091 .2688 10.1127 07.0940 OS25iS 3 2.1 026 220 154 5232 34 90 44 07 6 5 .0925 .2701 .0903 ,2811 6.8597 I 07.0940 0525l'8 3 2.2 S33 37S 176 74 54 62 86 '11 14 2 9 ..0430 .1414 .0697 .2261 17.6m " AVf1lJaS BY SI TE COte AIm YEAR: .0830 .2167 .0970 ,2568 10.:!558 I. . '1lilRlfTlJI CREEK , . : 08.0030 . 092078 3 1,1 000 128 90 104 48 34 33 274 65 16 64 .4895 .4930 ,4895 .4930 3.0909 .1 : os. 0030 092078 3 1.2 134 104 82 49 43 35 42 204 74 19 51 .4151 ,4402 .4943 ,5313 4.4149 - ! I A'SAlB BY SIlE COlE AND ~ ,4523 . ,4696 ,4919 .5122 3. 75'29 .1- , SlWP- ~ I (S.0059 091978 3 1.1 136 191 29ll 190 122 82 79198 57 63 44 ._.'.-..2497 .3303 ."2755 .3645 4.4096. 08.0059 0919i8 3 1.2 000 424 270 143 97 73134182 n 8458 ,2568 .3567 .2568 .3567 4.0620 JI I 08.0059 0919i'8 ~ 2.1 000 244 279 120 80 47 32 60 35 10 18 .1330 .19139 .1330 .19139 6.9918 I 08.0059 091978 3 2.2 000 245 208 136 103 51 47 73 34 11 7 .1366 .2361 .1366 .2361 6. 2723 c ; - .1 A~ BY SI1E COte ~ YEAR: .1940 .2S05 .2005 .2S90 5,4339 : SOlIBER Lt.I<E cmx .ce.~ 091878 3 - 1.1 874 226 217 114 ISO 93 85 82 36 19 ~ .0993 .1612 .1806 .2917 12.8n6 1 : O'G,0061 091878 3 1,2 146 260 096 118 76 64 "9 81 24 1823 .1497 .2626 .1761 .3008 6.7517 A~ BY SIlE cm: ~ YEAR: .1248 .2119 .1783 ,3002 9.8121 I '1 IlIF FIEZE calE SM'UNi DATA 81103131. I \WI'E (tt.1 CJ' I'ATER1rL k'EPT AT EACH SI& SSUlES CJ' ~ PARTIClE SIZE SITE TIS (SI& SIZES. RWm. IN ItII I<<lll. I'JD. G[1)t, RIVEll DATE COte COte SO.9 26.7 13.36.73.3 1.6 .83 .42 .21 '.11 .0 IOaL "'OSKI IO€lL KOSlCI lEAN I ~~e:z.e Go reo de..l.. "~IA. ~...o~'< ~ e....$e. pn> 10' -~ tmTH CREEK ~ 5% .4323 7.0S58 -O'G.OO7Q 091878 3 1.1 234 094 197 154 134 146 219 80 11 29 58 ~ 1 08.0070 091878 3 1.2 000 262 2)J 178 135 140 194 71 35 n39 .1 . 17513 .3893 4.5%5 08.0070 091878 3 2.1 278 2S5 204 136 102 79 82 69 19" 8 8 .0819 . 4 .1048 .2591 10.8269 I. 00.0070 091878 3 2.2 000 294 173 109 61 33 22 30 16 5 9 ,om .1410 .0198 .1410 11.7489 ---- ,I ~ <.,~~SBYSIlECOte~YEAR~~fi -g: <3054.(8.56~ % <' '3. ~h... C! S ~. C/. / LITTlE EEM em;: ""'~.." Qr.... ." ...... .1 00. ooeo 092078 3 1.1 294 093 174 126 90 97 111 217 5S 20 15 .2376 .3$10 .3V76 .5010 6,1303 OS. ooeo 092078 3 1.2 000 330 168 116 42 51 30 33 33 '17 4 .1050 .19'10 .105.; .19'10 8.91132 08. ooeo 092078 3 2.1 131 246 362 ISO 68 SO 68 90 46 24 6 .1306 ,2187 ,1456 ,2439 7.1414 .1 - 00.0080 092078 3 2.2 000 281 37S 122 56 29 26 108 44 28 13 .1734 .2m .1784 .217:: 5.006lt A'1CRAGES BY SI1E CCt'E AND YEAR: .1630 .25SS .1843 .2903 6.7991 I -103- l;i=f=j=1~'~{~_(e)J lJ~ "'. . '. -" ... . . . . ._. ..:. , -JJ. / . .....:; ;..." : . ::.....~:i:.::.:.~.; ....... ~:_;.;. ,"_. ~'. ..... " .... . .... ',0. 'PW-20S .:.,.. . U.:, _.... .' August ~973 . p; ,.:..',..... -. .. " . ..... . . :.,;".,~' . ... ' ' " ~,;." ::::-. . ........'.:~;... ,"' ., ,\~~~l~: ~ ' , ,,~' .......,.. , .' '.' .-j;7i.;.:.-."':"";-.... ....:..,... ;_:.':;.. ~';-~~'. ,"... " -..... _.." . ., "." \.'";.:::::-':- 'c:.' "~~,t' ~ .. ;'W .; . -".. ".' ......... . . : . " . -~.. _I-i"_ .:t.:;:,;;;,. A FREEZING TECHNIOUE FOR SAMPLING STREAMBED GRAVEL 7';':~:::.,._. . .::.,.. ;;",:.. - .." . ". ." " '-. -V-';"" .. , ". . .... ... ih:-::_-!,:;. -:.\:-:~t;. i:...... '. ......" .-tA~~~~~~.'..-:~...:~:~~~::~'~~~:::~~ ~ :._ '." "';';~.~ - ~ ..~"~ ". .: . .~":-:':~~.~.~. . . . ._ ........ . _.'.S...,",.'.-:_>_~., -.J.:,.-. ". u_ " . ~!:~-=::::_:"'-:'. :'::~~;'--':'.r ....:~....: ., -~ _ r ~i:;': -~ -~..~.:.. '.:.;':"-~i.:.-:.... ''':':'', '.";'." .... '_~:', . .. ._~. .. ._ .- - '..:. :...-:! :;:~' '.: .: ':~: <::. :. "-:~ .,., WUllm .~. .-:... j. WalJcot:t:"en; Forestry Research Techn!ciazt" ~ '- ..' .': .... ~.;..~.: -.. :. "'.s;::.-....,. .~ ':;::;.-~..,- , ,- . '''. -. - :.~. .: . -. '. '. .-:.......:u .. .' ABSTRACT ..: . '. .. .;, ,.::.., .,....\ .,. 7'1Us- stream sed1ment sampling methDd reI1Dves '. . Ii. nearly undiSturbed, stratified sample containing stream gravel, intergravel water, and organic IlBterial and allows sampl.ing in rocky streambeds. The equipment is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and portable. KEYWORDS: Sampling (-streams), sedimentation, streams. -:2- "';lli'r;:;'<.' f. .. .... ",. -..~ ~ -~"'~"'~-~--.~I . . .. . .... '.. ~~,..,>> .!:;..,;. ~"""'.:~. - ....., .. ":~. > _.~'i~~,... ". -/04- I I . I.... I . .. .. I I .' I I" 1 1 1 I 1 1 <.,.'" .-:~~~,.: .,:,,;,:;":~"'" ::'",:-):~~'<>.::~ . ':~; ,.....,.,.-~.SI..".. The need to sample gravel and sedilllent ill rocky. salmon-producU;:....':...~~; ;"1':~1 ~~;. streams o~ southeast AJ.aslca led to the deve1op1lent o~ a freezing teeh- . ':<';:~ <.'''._.. nique. It provides a nearly undist:l1rbed. stratUied sample containi.ng . " ~~. :.:i' stream gravel. int:e%gravel water, and orqanic: 1Il&teriall it should pro- .. ::~~:::'. :.:.;;.; vide valuable info=ation on gravel resedilllentation a~ter ~eaning. ~>;~~ .~.;: :In addition, the technique can be used to remove sampJ.es frcm sCllle of. . ,_,'d:"t.~ :~''fi!f the l.ess CQlIIpact BOil types. The equipnent i. portable enough ~or . _'~''':'~~~~"'' .~ sampling streams in remote areas. The technique makes it possible to . . ::' '" -. ~"-t dete=ine percentages c~ various material. sizes by position w1~n the . .:':~_. .~, l'~ frozen sample, since even the fillest sediments are locked into it. ....: :'~~f;. ~~ Further IlICdifications may facilitate collecting aquatic bottolll fauna '. .~: :~~ ~ for productivity ~tudies. .. . ',i~: . .." .~. ". ,:~'~~'if.-" .. ~ . , ....'" ,~. .. .. '--0 ~JI"_U .:..~ .....--,.,.. . . ....... .~'.~..""~-~~.. -~~ .;':.':'0..'.. ." "A'_... ~.'.' . ~ '..~~~""'-:-:=' .:w:C""~--:. ":;/;f;~~~ 'h~~;~fer 1s~n~:~I:I:eez~~i: ~v~ s:;~)L.i~~.~, it stream'"cha.nn~..: My method uses liquid ca%bon dioxide ~ed.into. a :--';~~':~..;.' . ~ .copper- tube ~erted into the gravel. The li~d CO2 vaporizes lI;t :~'.!c;~ ~< . . a:'. atmospheric pressure and absorbs heat frcm the. streambed~ ~e:int;. :.:,",;~'';~ ...~ . ,'" . the interqravel' water." Once fl;ozen, the s!llllPl.e" is IIOt'.easUy- dama:~p~' , , .,~ by removal. from the samPHng site. . The technique proyides a.sampI .-...... . 1la varyinq in size with the type of streambed material at the samp1~~~,.~: :~~ location. Sample size averages about 500 grams of sediment .(dry";::..~~~;:!.. . '~ weight) . Sampling depth varies with streambed texture but can rea~~~~~. f; 4 feet into fi~e gravel when the copper p~~~".:u.. .P1~Ced. b.y' ~.';." .~.~~.~ :~~~. "lilt!: . . -~_.. . ..'-'.. '-""=~JJ.' ~ - - ,-.- The equipnent needed for gravel freezinq is in~ensj:";e' azUi::,.:,~:T.~~~,,: '" _~: '..~ to obtain and assemble (fig. 1). The $8IIlplinq probe 15 assemhl~b...~W~?'''''' "": '. . , from 1/2- or 3/4-inch hard-drawn copper pipe and fittinqs~ : A':f.~~ ~]'~ ,. . -. ,.'.;': cross pipe is sol.dered to about 3 feet o~ p1pe,:and shcrt.6-to ~"7f~!i7f'ff.-;;:..- . , ,.;J;; lengths of pipe are soldered into the threer....hdng oPenin'1a., oz(~b.!,~~ .'"" :;..; ~cur-way =ss. This provides a strong handJ:=- needed to remo.ve.:;tf1~~ii,.. .. frozen sample and a place to tie down the C02denvery .tube....:..A... '. machined f= brass, is soldered to.the other"end of the II"",pH"!;...',...., . . . _._' ,_. . ..........~ .., n . probel this IIlUSt be a watert1CJht joint. The. 3/8-iJ2chSO~t-dravzl'\""~ _ tube is cut: to reach to the bottolll of the FObe,::. nUe tube, PP'"'~'!1,. '. . ~_' on the upper ~ is cOl1Dected ~ .the_~,::r~~o~~,~2.~:~:"~~~:~_ ...., with brass fittings. . ....... "':'",~'f"~;.~'~'":.";"~-"..J.M _ ,.. ::.1~7":~kf.:.~:~~~~'i-'Y;_~:;:.:.~~~~~~'i-..~ ..' . The IDOSt convenient liquid cO2 "'supply:s.;:'an"o~':~' f~'"" extin<]Uisher. The fire extinquisher bottle. ~ an internal, =-'.;;::.- reaching to the bottolll to provide l.iquid C02.~ the vpright poa1.~ and also hilS a convenient val.ve and handle.. A reu........lo.le' cbo1c8 ~_... the 15- to 25-potUld size for portabil.ity~..:u..:c~~ ~...anc!:'~~' quate supply. Pipe fittings replace the fize:lIcrD. ozi.the'bott1?~ - the wire-rl!infcroed supply hose can be attachaci:::' An. additi~~~?<-ii: .." is needed in the line to requlate .the fl~ Cl.~~2 .tz:,1:I1~:~;O,~~, ~ ":f~' .J~" , ' , "...~.. ~:t..n.5 ,t:-,"1..,":''' ~.:... .~~:-:___ _._."?~. ...... '~." ....~~.~.~ ..~"""."~;3"'''''''~~ 1~~~.1;;~.. , INTRODUCTION 2 -105- ;.iJ' .': . .:.;! .. - "~~"'d ," ...~~!; . ~ ~-1 ,\:, . "-ra. ,'''': . ...,.. .~...:"II. "~.:~]:;.' .-:'J";'" ..~~_'l......~.;~ .- - ..- F- -.. "':'~l~&?~ ~.~ '~~::'. ~i::~: .~ ':; ....... . . .....:..:a ".. ." " ( :- .to... ~~. ~:'.;;~"" -.. '!:~. :.;.:;.,,"'~::-~'" : .' '-"':~ .~ '-:;;Iv.''' '. C '. ;,'. . . '. '19.1 .-. ;~~::::.~ '" ,t:o:") .-. .....~.-.v~. _ .,..~-~.-. ~. ...~.. .- 'F~'-' .. I . . ". ...:......C1::. ".,: . ", . .:.~.~.,:.' '. , ':~~:~'. . ~~~~~...,.~~~....-.,~-~~..~'~~--: -/0'7- I. '. I I I I I .' I ... I I I I I I I I I gas cylinders can be used; but they must be CO2,, are heavy and difficult to handle, but previding a large gas supply. ~,._~ ~ ;'.:7:~~ . .- ":')i';~ ..........- " ._~.::..4I... ':'''I'~..~::l :.:~ , .......... .. ...: ;"'~.I!a I ...-;Jft , inverted to supply liquid bave the advantage of .... '. ....... . OPERATION ~ . freeze-sampling technique. allows great freedom in selecting sample locations efig. 2). Any st:reambed location can be sampled, provided the probe can be pushed . into it. Neither. water lllOVement nor depth seems to affect .sample freezing. After site selection, (1) the prebe is pushed into the st:reambed,.. (2) the- 3'/B-inch copper tube is inserted. ~ depth intO the prebe,".and (3) ....the tube .is ,fastened to the probe hL"\dles. The C02'is turned on at..a~i:ate that blqws carbon. dioxide--5nOI'- out the top, of the probe. The best flow rate is about 1 pound per minute,' but this is impractical. to measure in the field so the propel;' rate is dete=ined by.watching the escape of gas from the probe~ A little practice soon' shows the IIIOst efficient use of the CO2"... If no -s'.l""'- or dry .ice: is .blowinq.from the probe, use a . : faster .now rate; .an excessive flow' is spe-ctac:ular, but wasteful. . There is. usu"uly SOIIle lllOIlIentary pluqqing of the.3/B-inch copper delivery .tube during the.freezing process whm;dry 'ice foms in the bottom of the probe. The plug clears in a few.,seconds with the release of CO2 -pressure in the hose. Back pressure: can'calise the delivery !:ube to jet out of the probe if it' is, not,. tied down.,: ...;.. I: C -.,;,. ~~. :.~ ~~ ::, .'1 r...~.~ ~ .... ::......I . .::. ::i.:. "-;-- .. ._".;.,\;.:' . . Insulating properties.of ice limit the size of sample.that can be obtained. A lllaXimum-size sample is f=zen in 2 to 3 minutes and is solid enough to allow removal of the. delivery' tube and preparation of - sample container before extracti:ng the frozen plug from' the streambed . .; eng.' 3). 'l'heprtme, with ihe '. adhering' frozen sample, is then pulled from the streambed and is ready for examination. '. ~.... ,'.",. .....1. ~ :. .": ~:.. .". .... '," . ," ~ ~ .~'~.:- .~~~ . - ..., " .' Figure 2.--Freeze-sampling ,a SZIIlIll salmon stream. 4 ,,' I . . I I I I I I I I . I I .. I I . ,- .: Figure 3.-Examples of frozen gravel -plug- as removed from streambed. ~ , . Arrow paints to a l'i ve salJlZ)" egg. ~;. -1",:. . 1-- .~ .., - When sampling conditions are good and two probes are available, a sample can be taken every 5 minutes. About 2-1/2 to 3 pounds of CO2 are used to obtain each sample. While sample weights var.l greatly, priJllarily ,due to the particle size of gravel removed and probe depth, - the average contains about 500 grams (dry weight) and 150 cc. o~ water. The -plug- of frozen gravel provides a vertical se-ction of the streambed to the ~ depth of sampling-. It is certain that samples. contain disproportionate amounts of larger g-ravel sizes; but for pur- poses of examining streambed deposition and sediment distribution this techiuque removes a nearly undisturbed sample. :tntact frozen samples can be taken from the stream to the laboratory in cold weather. Some caution is, necessary when working with compressed CO2. At abDospheric pressure, the released gas temperature is -lOS- F. (-7S- C.). so dryl, insulated gloves are needed for handling the valves, hoses, and probe. Tank pressure can exceed SOO p.s.i., so good tested hose and fittings are necessary in the event of plugging, and the delivery tube IllUSt be tied securely to the probe with a strong cord. CO should not be used in a closed area,and safety glasses should be worn 'by the user. Do not get water into the sampling probe or into the CO2 delivery tube because ice will fo:z:m rapidly and prevent escape of CO2, 5 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~"". -/<:,2> - ' "~ . I . . I I .' . . I' . I I . I I I I I . SAMPLE RESULTS .' Soth ~st Creek and West Creek, on the Young Say Experimental ,Forest (northern Admiralty Island), were sampled above extreme high tide. These SIIlall, salmon-spawning streams are very rocky, fast- flowing, and carry high sediment loads during s,to%lllfiow. Their rocky beds make standard gravel sampling extremely difficult. By freezing the gravel, we pulled several randcm samples from each stre4-lll (table 1). The <12.70-mm. screened 'fractions show a close percentage correlation between the two streams. The ,large difference in total sample weights between the two streams reflects the higher percentage of gravel in the >12.7,O-mm., size class in W=t Creek. . It is interesting to note that, the 'West Creek'samBle No. S also included 43 sa.lm::ln e-ggs. ,.. f :. ... ".~ : ; -. -::-. ....., .. ; '--' "-". ..'-.' .-"", ~ . ... -, ':~ ~;;~~~.. -:: . -. ,; .~ J -j . . . .~,' .. . ... ~". '." ':'" ", tU1e'l..-'-"du of truu ..,ti.~ ... .cr- ClI'I .,..":".., .. r. uncua '" . %. IcIPM. 10_.. ',.' ,- SkN . . . i S.D. S.L ........ I..) 1 2' 3 . , . 7 ' . . 10 U ' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ ,,~ ..""-I r,.,...J- - . . - - - '. - - - . - - - - - 13.70 119.' 13'.2 "7.2 . %10.5 215.7 . 1tD.3 n.' 70.1 n.' . 1.6' IU.' n.' ,.... 14.0 is.' 117.1 UI.7 122.' 132.' .... 132.' ... 36.' 1I.f '.2 '.7 !t.. 31.1 35.' 20.' 27.0 13.f ".f ... ::S... '.2 '.7 ,.. U.. 13.2 16.7 '.1, 11'.7 f.2 21.2 .21 10.7 2.3 1.f '.2 3.7 2.7 6.4 . 1.1. '.2 3.' 7.3 " .1. 2.f '.7 "' 1.7 1.1 ., . 1.' .3 1.' '1.. . 3.. e .lD. 1.' .. .1 ' .. .. .. 1.' .. .3 1'" .. 1.' 'total _1&t:a1C 431.0 :W., 73f.' 31.' 401.' 411.7 111.' 111.1' 212.2 131.1 .1IJ... total _iPt .'. (cU.7D _.l 2..17.4 UD.3 11.4 31.' 111.1 117.. 11Z.' lSD.f 117.2 .... 2.,.4 1".7 .... _________~--------------,~tpan.---------------------- 13.70 11.3 74.' 11.1, .... 7..1 n.. IS.. 11.2 71.. St.' 11.7 .... 1.... 3.29 1." 13.4 13.7 10.. 17.' 14.3 14.3 19.' 13.7 1.... 1'.0 24." 11.3 3." 1.11 ... . f.1 ... '.7 17.6 ... 7.. f.l .';0 1... lS.' ... f.l 3.7. 1.13 ... '.1 1.f 1.3 13.2 3.. 1.1 .3.' .7 3.3 "3 3.. 3.' 3.3' 1.02 , .11' ' 1.1 .. .. 5.3 .f .1 1...' .1 .7 1", 1.2' 1.1. ,1.41 .43 .1. . .7 .5 .1 1.f .7 .1 1.4 ", '.1 "", 1.3 ' i.. .. .,. .17 , 6 - /09 - 'faille 1.~_ of ".... ..,.tilv ..., .~ "" c:Iw ztIWtf ... tIF ':-.it.z, ICIlNet-Coau...M b::r:!::m:~:] 7"~ 7 I:::I:I .. ",- - -- - - ~., -':-,-,,'-~,~ - .,...~..._ r_J _.__ _ _ _ _ _,__....- '.~,.... ;:. 12.70-' " ' ' %31.3 33703', S4S.' '57.' 1.1.51.3 ....1 " 1.171.0 SU.3 l"CXI3.7 1....;", 79.3 W.I UI.S 1.51.1 m.' 17'.1-_.; 140.2 U2.1 1".' .14 - 26.' 42.'..42...5 33.D 46.'. 70.' -.~.....o 31.4- . 1.5..1 .50,:.\~..':'. '. 16.'. 34..1. %3.4- 11.' 24..0 20.. ....~:. 34.1 11.1:." 2.,2. .21.,..:,':', '."" '.. S.' 1... :':..111.1 I.S U.O ..7,,~,r, 14.3 '1.1" 7.1 :r::,::::-:".:: .,',',"t~_, ;:~ ":~ '::~ ';~ ~:;":.:: ;:; t:-\.""t~ .':::/.-'~_,"._,'" .~'.~.~,':',~i'.' 112...3 sn.t '%1..' .2.71.' 1.413.3 .,;.,.'.-~~'t.~.~''II_... . "., 'foCa11M1P'C '-.~"~ .. .... ....;... : ',: (<1%.70 -.1 "=.0 '114..'_~ ZDo3' 111.4' ,m.o 1'~~~~~~:: ::l:::::'i~jt,.. - ~ ~Wtg - - e' ~:-.-.- -.-:'7.~:::~t~i~'~'----- n..i. ;--.~. 1'.4 ....1'" n.6' CJ.:i..~ .".%2. %..01 '.: ..'. U..'. ,',', 17.' 11.7, 14.' a.,.-:,L1t .7' :' ,.S'.. .'..3 ,., 7..J. ,..S....LU l.OS-. 1...::.....:...3.' %.,... .2.., 3.7.-;...1:.>> .44., "!:.~ ~ ..Z-....:.:. 1.1 ~I :...'."::. .1..4 .1.....,.;;..-.:.:." .u. '; --'..7. ...":.:.:. 2..1 ..'" ..' 1.4 .L":.~~.~S4 .11 -.-'- ..~.... .. :~ ..~... .... ..... ~(_l' ...-.... . ~1..:....~~-.~,~,:_.,:~~t,~~,~,.""',~,'.' .~,',~," -::;~~ ::~~~ ~;~:~ :'~1-.~:~.:-; - 20.5.... 1'.'-':: '-1.5.0." 14.' .:~:: 14:' ::~~~t~~gd~~~!~~~::}ff~~~i, ~~, .'~,::~~~ ': . ~__ ';.'" ~. .l.... .,;0.=::'<" ..-.,',;,',~.".,:,'..,-_.., -. ~-. . ...;..,.... . . ....;.:;-:.,~ .~_-:- :~~~.;.~. 0:~~:~~: .- i .' ::'.~:' . ...-.... ..1 "__;-;: ,....-...""!. ..~."'.~. ..fa ~~':~ '.. .,..~ . .. ...,' - , '. -.' ........ '.-' .' .~~ . .', " ,.... ", '" .' .' .~1. " '.. ..~:! " ~.. '. ' .? -'c...... ., - " ...... , " -.'-:'" .. . i ~ '. .~ - . ~ ......:. ..:. ::-:.:' .. ~ .,. ;," GPO ,...." war a= , ' " , ~ 1 . .til.. . .-. ...... "'-'. ....... .~~ ::-c_.... . ..;.-.~.._;::,:~!:, :;.~ -~);-:;~, ....t.. ........ -.. . :::-;:-:,9"" ~:f~.:~:...:-~ ~ ... .':.~. . _>~"i~~~~;";'-:' :.~. ir~~if ;;. S.&. 1 :'~~ -I ..,... " ...~.~ "L~ ,I ~'. ;', ;.". "';"'?;~/"-.' . . .....-.;. .-. -~. -:0. . . .: .- .~:!t~S;.~ ...... . . ',;.:-.::."-; .,'. " ......-..."" ~...T...!:.:..-::. '. .,.-.. ';"~,.I':,J' :"4_--' ~. ....0:-..-. ~ .::.~.;..: ., . ..~.... .'\.:..~..~.;:.~? . -. . ..p_.. .~~-- ._~..~.~ t.~;~::.:' ..' ~':::'i ..' ~. ", .;..,;., ~.~ .. ':-'" ! < -' - :.,. ;'';'':." ~:.~ .:~ :~, .: ~.:~';-: .;-......;"; :::~t ", " -.:':., .".-. .::.:'f'l"" 7 -~~~~'~~~~~rR'l -110- ..' '"- . ". ...... ..-....~-. ; ,~~-.::'.:.:._. ':.;'~i~~..:'," . ;":.-:.. ~.: .'"1 .,,,..' . ...~.. ,', '. .;." " ,,' " ,.:;. ~ . It.-. 00:'- .. -. -.....- .:r.. _ '. Q. 10 I:~"'" I I z-::, I 1-. i ~ I ,~ I , ','''1 , , 1,1 i ~ i' I ~ y=B3.739-1.260x r=.794 n=:5! ~ kYl~::> ~3.327_ . o o 0 o 10 20 :50 40 SO cO % Gravel Camposilianc:5.327mm esan~) PelatIcas!'t!p. te,:"iHfI ~he rereP~.'f" e! .,&,......4 tfines < ~.3'21 ~ ~u: .!. Q.l~S IS.:C.) 1:1 the !:ravel . cC: t~e rate ,,~ .\:"V~Y....l to en-t:::'tcn;e or. - chu= ~.1=.co fCJ:" the enlIncd yca:-s of lS&' cd. 1969. IJ w ~ ,~ 1~ ~""~''7 .11 s,........... 1"'-' !;""',....J I ::~r.::~ ol.--C~4t"/~d rwticr.$:ti:s re~rt:tJ. :,y '..;~~t:ct \ (USa; :,..~......n :"'r",=~"iii', of =~.nin"b~ ~nJ.u:-' I -/i.,.ll oi .,i...'1ic m\l cr.um s~1r.x:n IU them.i;r2l1t fi/3:.1~~ I' 1 -111- ...... ,t;: 500 '" <:. ::: i:l ....400 ~ ~ "" '" " ' ~ 300 'Ii ~ '. 'C; ~200 :~ ' ::: '.. ~ 100 01" I 1 " \ n-lct/t:".1 /', "? --...=~ ( . -SS' t C",'/e was filted by eye, . .\. .~ .\ \ \ . -'\-0. .0 \ '\ . ,. , . , . " . ........ I , -1 ..j..... )~t,.' . .--:;.... ',',.','. 5 10 15 20 -.:~:: ~:::; P=!ftto;~ of bottom sample by vclum~ ': ,~~ :r:/'.':-'" p~~in9 through O.SB3-mm, sieve . ..' ." .' "FllIU", 6.-Re1adonsblp' observed 'i:e"'eetI ,Qeiflclel'.t' of permeabWlT and the frx:ccn of !he lOul vnlum.. of $ueom battllm ""''''rl~1s po.ssinl;!hrou!!h 1n O.3J:l-mm. sie.e. (CIlrve fiued by e-;c.) '- JY1c N~,-I R~'ah" ~s~r,.,.".,~r." Anon ..I;uro!c:ft Ve,'! hi'}" !:adion. 1:"1 "ro,...,1 Mediul'l't r, ~ig!\ Old Tom Medu.am to ~;'1n ;t"\I.-~'.JClI ,",orris ...,.. "" i"''''.I~'1 Fair to ",~dium Twelv.mile uo",...,:'ft .ft'",,, ~I Low 10 lolt Ma.,baso ~~I'!'..!.e:1 1.:,. . !l . 20 10 1:1 Pe,ee",a;. or sohds p03SSlftg rhl'Ou9h 0.833 -mm. sieve Fl;:1re 7...P~r=Q..e of the toQI volume of baa.:lm m~'eru\s L., sL~ SOU"'.......ern AUsIu pink s.~.on stre3tnS pu.sin~ :an O.333-rr.::::. sieve. S..mQ\~ 'Mere col!ected in su:nmoer 1~!j:f. The sc::.ar:".s ~3Ye t:~ Z':1l\lceJ io :lcQrJ.lr.:e wi:l.lj)~:aro.ima:!: lev!!3 of t'L."1.k ulmon esc~pe.n~u ....~i.~tte,t hy .lvailable Spd'''T\:''''~ "tt"~].. YEAR I I I I 1 I 1 My records show very low sockeye counts in North Creek for '73, '76 and '77 I and no data is available for '78, '79 and '80; I suspect most sockeye spawn- ing in North Creek are strays from Big Bear Creek which has a peak count of 3-6000 fish. The peak is probably around October 15 and a range from late I August to early Oecember. I I I I 1 I I I 1 I NORTH CREEK PEAK RUN TIMING 1976 1977 1979 1979 1980 Chinook Coho Sockeye Steel head Cutthroat Peak Oate 10/1 ISO* Range 9/30-11/10 ISO Peak Oate 10/26-11 /18 9/30-1/26 11/2-11/16 10/28-1/11 ISO Range ISO *ISO = Insufficent Oata All Years ISO Oecember 1 - March 31 ISO February - May (Best Scientific Guess) -//4- 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 I Juvenile Sa1monid out Migration - North Creek* Chinook - May to June COho(year1ings)- April 1st to June 1st Sockeye - February 15th to April 15th Steel head (1, 2 or 3 year old smo1ts) - April 1st to June 15th Cutthroat (lor 2 year olds) - April 1st to June 31st *A11 dates are estimates and may vary from year to year with temperature and flow variations. -1/5- I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I APPENDIX F TIMBERLINE RECLAMATIONS, IRC. PBELIMINARY STUDY FOR THE WATERS OF NORTE: CREEK EXISTING STREAM ASSESSMENT RECOMMENDED IHPROVEMENTS SALMON SPAWNING - GROUND DATA RETRIEVAL (WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES) SUMMARY OF METRO NORTE: CREEK WATER SAMPLING ENTIMOLOGY DATA EXISTING VEGETATION -1/7- " ~ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR THE WATERS OF NORTH CREEK (SITE OF THE PROPOSED KOLL BUSINESS CENTER) BOTHELL. WASHINGTON ~ .:.-: .' Prepared by: Timberline Reclamations. Inc. Bozeman. Montana " " . - /18- I I .1 I I ,I ,I, I I I: I- I I' 1 I I I I I ~ , Whut. "",1I.1Wll 111,a fl,tu<iy_,n( "lCiH+.illff "uniHtioll:r with:!n North r.rco~, Gpeclrl.mlly t1mt. arcn which will tH" implIcted '. -. .- . .. .... . - - ". ....:..- '. . 'by j,he pr;'poncd Kol1 nU::i'noBIl'r,nn''f.C'r ':It: ~"t,IH;(y. W:',,:h.II:~t.ni,. Thl'! P"".lc"t,ocl C'lonnecll thnt will <lCmll' fnlll'wiJiI;. llb:III."'i hnhi I: tn\,r..n~ wlll ulna hI! d.lDCU~H",d. re-_ A~~~E~:":M~NT . ~ .... . '". -..".. . --' :' ''rti,:', "ncq.ou ;:", Nort.h Creek, in: q,UP'Ll'p1:0n:. trnlf ilIHlnl....~t1 Zi'<f~ . ~ .. - -. . . - ". '. '-'. -' . . .., li1',I?:f()j~n,~," !i~p',',r~~ ind~'cah.thtl.t. 'p:}or, .to:_:his:t)~:...' :'C:lltro;, . ~ .. -'. ..:.... ". ~.. - - .... - - -.' -.- -. : Chi-no'o,k"-..:I:ncf 5o:~if.ey~ ~!l l'mon Ii t Ui.~cd ttre.- crel!~ ~rl'r r.rlll,wn I n~ r g) . FOI] C)'wing ch:mnciliz:Jtio'n, the area 'bec"m.., :l- t.runsit ~-',~_~"i<lor ,~o? lllllmonoids ' to - the upper secti"nn- ~r. Nnrt.h (~I'..nk - - (Apppnd;r. Al. Lessor t~e spawnin~ ar~a~ ~'.:. ...:.-: .....- ."'- . . --. -.".:".. ~'. ~""'K:C_: ~~'ii_::- lind, rCS!;lt1ng-"h~bttat',.:~~as. "cj;r-n_vr. I i'hr.s'rllwn-lr\~, nnd 11 ohllrp dncrelloe,: ifT w:itnr quo11 t.y. . '!n:i: d~c ,~.~ :-...11 t.1I ~ 011. , o!',we,l't:.oxyeenntll(f,. " ~ ~ '. . , , In t~... l/lllt 50 years, this cha,nnelize~oection hus J'oJcover"d 'som..wllll I., hut not-to the pain t of' lJUot.a l.ning spuwning OR lmnn. Veg,et,'1tl,on haD re-e~t,ab1ished itself In' 'm.OIlLot' tho hllnk.n~f'!l1fl. though Ot'~":JID, ~hud~J1g '!ona oV,er~anging cover i!l:' l'l:rge,l,y .'a.b!ltl~1 ~'" ...... " .. - - . -.:. .. . - -(ApPflnd i.X.nr';"LllCk ~f' shacUtig-:o'! th's: ~t;c:jai hafl' :I.c~,... t,o_ thnrra,il ';" ,', ',' ~ ". ;:,:., ' ',', ':': ',.'- . ,'; .-',',-,=':..., ~:~' ,... ~'- ::'.....' , , ' JlOl:rut:,i."II~: ':i, rrinuTthll-f(;Xp~osfo" in:, :I1,::ie.gro)it.Ii". nn.1 it '.ile- '. . -' - . .. - 2 ('[',en:H) in ~;he dittll~,'i-ve,d o:>~ygl)rr,cc.n,t.en{(APP.,n:dl.x B).'::-'. " Unlll,rr:'.. t, h""kn, roll t.'. :." I' (lye- l'hnngin'g vep,'-"t.:J t.l.JII. '<lid ollnk"n "oY':r"~rc:lt.tl opt.irmm hnbit.at.f.'r ,"limoll"!'!.l._ PI'uvidillP- , . SCl~ur.lt,.y I}oldn r,-um p r "d~l +. i.t'" nnrl " plnt-'. I,., !: '-: " (I,:'). Tl,in : : . -//9 - .- - ~ ."':" -- ..' .. ';1 .;,. ',..,.". ~". . ,~ I Research conducted by Timberline Reclamations.: Inct'rpora,~~d,' ,","" "".... "'.." --and vnrioua Fieb llnd, Ga~e d~psrtmen.t.s _ in'th.C~lI.~~~~~:~:.:~~.:e~~~i:,,,;~:~,,:~ ~:~~~il has demonstrated a powerful,relat.ionship"betweett 't~& '~VllU-";',.-,;:>;';::,., .~':":;~~:' '. '.' ....- .'~~ . ....... .,.'., .. ",f ".. ._~.-'. ~ ahili ty o~: ~.hi~,~Y~~O~ b~~i t:~t:;~~t~e "~~:~'~<' ~~i;.~;~~,~~~i~~~i~tk'}~;~2j;1~~J spawnirig (J. 4. 5}~ "AiI'd! tionaUi;.' tnere"appearll" t'o', ~','~rlr~_..:,:":-;,~~:;.t,jt~{ link bet.ween t.his habitat. and size and nUllber~ Qf, ~~l~onoids"'..~'~, ':>:: ;.~:.;'T:~,I . - ," _. .... _0__. "~'_'-"""_"~:-',,-:; . - . .- _, u. .....,+... t.ype of habitat. is almost. totally absent in the corridor.-, (5.6.7)~ , , , In sections of North Creek undisturbed hy chnnnel- . ,: I iZI\t.ion. pools and riffles are 'evident. which arEt-.req~ired' "'':''';' ..:' ,,;;;. - tor spawnin'g activity.', " " ,- '- ::,: :h':...:~:;;;t':";"';~:~1 '. e""": .' - . .:. ..... ':' -~'. _ _.' : . '. _ ~- ~.~:~ ~.~ .i:.:~'-~j;<' '.:<'~:":: =. " :: " -The exis-ting 'corridor haa"onl;t,.-one_ 'r1.N'1e' ot sfgnl~.i.:'-~~'~''''7':',::'::;'',';'' -:,:::. " '-c~:~-~'~nd i~ i:Cl:"do~~t1"~i,-~ t~t:~l{ ilf~~t1:l1zi-d"~~. s'~~~:n~'; ::_7.<:~~~~;:~,~' -tC_ - -- ",. .,:, .":.." ? ..' :'. - - : . -:"." _:. ."-- salmcln due, 1;'6- .the i~'~'k ot supp~rting: ~abi ta"t: " Th'e-rQ are no, " ~,':' '~~"""I f't'ols per, s~ 'wi thin this' corridor. and' c~nseqilently'.llnother' : ",. ~I ~:'I '-~I ,. vit.a1'fellt.ure .01" spawning habitat ls abse~t. 'Gravels' which:, .... . - .' . .' -'- DOV constl'tu,te :1:.h~ corridor fl 0 01" ,a" ,adequate ,tor aPllvn-ing.:':":":" . _u..~.. ".: :. _..:.___...~. _ .-.- _ "" "._.':' ~ _: _,:. ""._'., .~..~~___ ' hut'.are' plague'd..-_bY oth~r 1imi ti.ng, factors previoUlil;r.c iDen'tloned~ _:' . . r" _ C .--:.: .. ....-. . _. _ _._ .... _.. . ~ ..' . - . ". "Addi tl('fl!1lly.o ail ta-tton from upstream has,sea.:l.ed', mIlch 01" tho- '. .. - .," .~,. substrate. causing serious problellls for both hatching of the ~almon fry and successful insect reproduction. HeaV)' silt. lOllds may a1(1o cause..mo!talitj- 'in fry due-to ,the abrasive wal;er temporn t.ures.~nd a ,'resulting 1"0'01 di~so.lV';d, oxy~en ,~on_:o, ;, '",:,< tent. '(Appendix C). . - ... ef~~ect on gUTS... -- ", .,'.,,'.,, ,:,~:-::':-":,:,::"::; .:';.:,;:.::: . :-':':'~::: ,";:::::1 ' " :'Theen'tomoi~g1:~a'l"survei i~dlcates'a'-re:rii.U'\C:ely.'1.ow .fn.<~,,:-,->,-:>:_, sect, 'coun'tL1oih~c-h '18', b9-l1e'~e~' 't~' be' ~nus~-l( b/'~~il i~~~ ,:,~~ - h'i~S'-~,:'.,?~: . .<:' '-'j .... .... . '. .. ,. "'I I I I Snmples taken from other sectLons of North : Creek indicate an overall reduction of insect populatioRs' in the corrirlor of an Ast~matGd 25-40~. Water qnlllity d~t.a .. ~ 2 ," " ... - / ZO - I I I I, I I I' - 1-.': I I - "':~ . ,~,.', generally'acceptable (Appendix B}. indicate levels which are One exception is the dissolved oxygen content which plunges during the months of July. August. and September due to 'low, . - . . .'. . . ::>..:~~;:..~ flows ~n(( high' a.ir't:einp~r~tures.: Fe.cal 'VIlC_tt> rr~~.upstreait",~",,';,-En:; sites is ~ de1"inite problem in that it e~c~urage; a1gci~: ~r~wth\.;'\Q,;\i:~ - ... . -- - -". . ~. --,-.:. -. "'.- - . --'. ."... ,",'.-:::::'-.:::::;:=-...:- -, and depletes' the'i.rateril' 'o'xygen .suPpl).";"':"", ~;..,-<, /': ',:" ..:;;'--:',', .,..",:; :',::;~}t1f _ To summarize existing condit.ions Withi~ the' cor~'idor., ';,: ::,~'~ . -.. -. _. _0.. .. . ..... ..... . , - . the following statements can be made. The corridor now con- tains Dppro~imately 30~,or existing habitat as compared with - - '., . .' .' . - ,other ~ec:tions of ljorth. CreelE ,on t~e'valle-Y',f'loor.. Vegetation '-~. . . .'~' ..... ::. "---' - - ill'1.imit.ed,. 'wHl1",pool.B: and, d:tp:es-lIiz:gely, n,Dsent.. ' W(l~ll'r, .. ... '._ - "_'.. -. . .". -=_.:.... - .: ._0_... __". ".:": .._ q.uali ti'.i~ e.. primar~ 'proble~ d~e 't-Q ::thermai .p,cill~t.ion- and in- ---',- - - - ~.. ~ . - -. ~ ~ ~_. ~ trofiucUon' 5f fecai mll.teria'l from- ,rp'stre~lli~ Sp'Svning potfln~ . - '. -'. . . tla'1 'is,. pra~ti call1nonexist~~ t: a~cien tomoi~gicaliy. the, .-' , ' .. -' ,.-. .,'. -. s,tream .is far ,from' itS', carrying capad,t;y.- , While existing .. ...= f1ubst.ra te- ,ma.terin~ is, adequate f9r,sp'avni:ng~'. it is impacted ".,.~.'- ....- -. .-':":-: -"..... ",- ~-." .. .......;.. -. -~ :..' '.. ". I'~._~;: ::,b~.;~~~-~io!1~:-.." '- ~:,::::,' .,', - , ~ ,,- - ..'" " .- - " - ~ -' - - -.. .:. - .. .; ... - - -- . " . '. . - .. '- I I I I '. - :STREAM IMPROVEMENTS .; It is believed that Nor.th Creek as it presently exists. w~i never a~ain' reach. its carry~ngpotentiar without wide-' ,. " sional opinion that if the proper plan ,is followod. nnd the new streambed properly constructed. this aecLian of NorLh r.ree~ will eventually surpass undisturbed sections from a -: : . .... . '-. , J. .' '. .' -.'. . -, -/2/- habitat standpoint: , Speci~lcally. relocation wIll allow pre. ' . I end or the, ,p,roJ:lerty to decrease introduction o~ suspended' -s~l1ds' and' fecai, mateda:1'.: Though wate'i! qual1 ty. w1.l1'he 1m. - - - -- ..:. ...... .:..-... '.: .. - .... ,'. , ' " pac,t:ed-_du~i~g,thir introdu;tton'~otNorth Creek in~o:the_n!"w:' . .-.:.... -~~.' >.:.~~.. ...: ~~--_... : .-..._...:.....-:::~.~.-.. -. ".' -';. .. -:~,.- -"':~ :-:.::-:;:". -"':.--. .';:'': 'C _ ~h~n:zi.,er, ~ th~~, -~~n4:~ ~i ~n.: ,~~:~b~_ .lti:~ge :i,,~I~~:~ate d_.t~ro~,g~o~, ':~; ~--:: ?-- -I,' ' -- . -. --' - _. --- ~ t~he, c~lt:ruetion.~r, t~po_ra%7-_m,~intain_able silt, catches: at,..-- ~ -, ~ :- various, Iocation'B ~n the neW'. 'chann'el. ' '. "I '. It Is'b~lieveQ that withi~ two years, the n~ section " ~f No}"th.,preek-,wiJ,l have, highar ,populations. of native ,sal. :' __. ...._." - _..._~':.' _;.... 0".- _' .... ":': . ." ". ""'- ." . :~__. ." _......."' _. _ '7,o~~~~~" ~'t,:~r::~abl t~~. -,a~do~:z Yastl~,inc:eased:-p~~en~~g~~,~~"'''~(;~~::l , of ,s,pawning -salmon. Add1:t1'on,.11y., it is b~lieved that, the", . _ ' low tlow/thermal po~lution problemi can be dealt-with in , such a way sO,as ~o minim!ze stress"on salmon and fry. Thilf probleawill ~e' ~ess~ned by' p;,oper engineering'of the new- ,.. , " ~ , 4, . ~." .- . ' ". .- ! -. '. . '- . -/2.2- ~I . ~lit,., - - ..:' ~I ,I e- . .....:..: ~I ~ 7':....~ . . . ~..::,...; .'.' ..::_".. .~~. ,.' :1 ,I :--1 .. ,. .. - . - - . .. " . . .-..:; I .' . : I I, '. ~.. : - ,I :---'. -..' .' -....; ..~..' _a. j. ..:-- " ~ i I I II' i.'~~~.::=:~=;: ~i~i.:':.:,::,~ ~:' /~~:' ..~::.-. - "I:::~~~~~icjii~~~~~~: . . _~ : .~t..'::.-.-:.~. .... ~ ..' I: , I I I .". ...... ~. . . - . ::. .. ....." ....::::=:...:... . :.: ."!" . .-...;- .. , " '. 'J"'''' --- ~_.. Appendixes . -/23- .- ..--;:- "., .~ -. - "";". "~ :.. . ,":," .~: L . . . .- . ::' _.~, ,:<,~pJt~:~~f~:F.~~ .... ,. ~, .. .' "..:".., 4 --' - _ =t:.;-~;:"~- . ....':.-.:--- .: ',ii~~{ . '. ."~,~~~::.' ~:.;~~~.:.. ~~{~~k~{;~ft . . _. -.1 .i~~~'''' ,."4.._- f: .' : ;-.,_. .~:" <....~~... (~~,,:-.:,~,;~i~..', ..,....; >-~o;;=;'~;~~t~*~~f~ ... 0" ....-.. '. .' " ", ,', '::. .... r. ."-. '. ' . ~ .< " ,... . -' . ...'- -' 'l.... .;-".. ".:' '..:_~.:~- . . ....'~. . '.:}~;-~'.~:":';~ ~"'~':"'~~ .....;...:.. .... ':',: . .-": :--':.' '. . ".:': '.;..~- ...:.. , ~ . .. -- " ,- " .' ::0;: ..,.... ",'t ... ... at...... 1ft " K ~ 5"" ., -/:2.4 ".:.,. .~:; ..-. .. .~ ".1. ~ ..::- '- . "..~..- --". . ~:~.-~~ .~~'~-7.~.:~::.r .: , - I , " 'I .- .. I I , t',w, .,,',' ~. I I I I I I .' I I I -, I: I I I I .1 I ,1' I . .,-' ".;' '..... ..... . ;o~. ..... ..""..... 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" . , .' I . . , .. I I . H' . . . " .. . . .. . I . . . . I I . I . I , . . . I . .- .' , , . . . ,. . . . . . I I . .. -.' .. .. II, .. ... '.' ... ... ... ... .t.. ."." ...... "'.. ....... .,.... ..... ,.. . .... ..... f., , .... .... .... .... ..' ... ..' )1,' I.' ... ..' ... If.. ... ... I..' ... I.' ... I., ... ... ... '.' I.' .... ... ... ,.. I.' ... loJ ..... .... e.. .. e.. .. I... , #.1 . I.. .. ',' .; I.. , ",- .. '.' ... ... ... ... I.. I.' I.. I.. .... , .., , . . . . . . . .. .. " .. .. .. .. ., . . . . . . . . .. .. .. N .. .. .. .. .. . . . .' . . '. .- . . . . . . . . .. .. .., .. .. '.. ... .H .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ... . . . . . . . .. .. .. N .. .. .. . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. ., .. .. .. . r- oO 10 /29- .. , ~ .-. .... -'1 ..._ ~- "- ..- ..- ~- ~ ~ . ~- - ~- ..- ..- ..- - ...- - .... ..- ..- - ..- - - \11....- .....,. "'.... 111_' ~...... "... III_I --- '--.. "'- ...... ,,- -..... It_ ....... ".... ...., ."'" .-. ""- ....r ,-. ...... ...., ..... .-. .... .""., -.,. .... .-. ..... ..... ..... -.. ..., .... III . . .. I. . " . . . . . . . - . I'~ ." ..... I. II ~.. II I. II .. 'I .. .. '. .. '. '. '. '. .. .. .. '. .. .. .... ..- ..- - ~- ..- ..- 1""1 I. .-. .. ._1 .. '''''f _. . 111" ..... .-. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . I . ... . I . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ._, .-. .-. . . . . . . . . . ..... ....1 I " . . . . . . I .... _liICt. ... e . . . ~I .._. ".." - - ...- --. -. ....It ...,. -. ,.... I.. .' . - - ..... ..- ..- ..- ..- ..- ...... ..., .... .-. .... ......1 .....,. --- ..... -.. ..... ..- '-' - .-. ...... ...., .-, ....... ..oor . -, ...... '. ' ~.. ., . . . . - . . . . . . . . . e . . . . . . . . " . ... . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . , . . . . ..' .. .. ' . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ,. .. .. ... " Ie ... ,. " ., " . . . ~ . . . .' II ~. .. " ..' II II .. I. .. ,. . . . ,. II .. -Ie II .. . .. It .. .. .. " II " '1 .. II .. I. II .. ,. .. .. ,. .. ~. ... ,...- .. ,e II ~# II 'I .. I. II .t .. It fo. 't .. .. I. .. .. '1 II " ... ,. I. I. .. I. .I' .. .. .. .. .. ,. ... .... '1 II Ir It II II ., " II ,. II .. ,,, .. .... I. ... ... ~. .... ... #. -. ... '11 II .... " ~.. .., .. " " " .. .. .. '. .. " .. '. .. . . "- '. ;. ;. ..' I :..:~.. APP ENOIX B Water Quality Report Wntdr qual ity in North Creek is gp,nernlly good. The main problrm ~imiting salmon reprodbetion is low flowa with associated high temperatures and low dissolved bxygen (O~O.) content during eritieal rearing times (July. Augunt. September). Fair conduetlvit.y levels (125-150 umho) arA also evi'!'lot eluring this critical time period. There seems to be no problem with pH, DUDpended,solids~ NH] and nlkalinity. lect!~'data is shown in Table 1. ' A sU,mmary or, co1.- " - '",_Optimu':l'tem.pernt-ure -range for migrating, 'i:p,:wniugartd rearing n:~'lmon is' from 7.2C:C to ~2."'8oC. !lllta' r,or- .Tune._~ulY~ , 0 August. anel'September show a 1-] C rahge above, the maximum optimum,t~mperature, Associntecl with temperature in the D.O. content. P.O. levels above 10ppm are considered to be optlmum. Since aclul,t salmon arc II,;ccustomed to higher levels of 0.0.. ,t.hey ?ogjn ,to show ntress when the concentrations Ilppronch 8ppm. ReRring fish will fare well if lev~ls do not drop below 9~pm. Again. during the critical months. D.O. levels foIl below optimum. All other parameters are within optimum levels. Proposed modifications to the channelized section of , - North. Crep.k wJ.ll return the st.ream to a more nnt,urnl conel i tl on, and,; improve 'water qualYty & ' Part.ieularly. revegetll tlon pro- vidinp, adcqun te nhading wlll lower the strenm tnmpnrn t,u rA n t least. 1.0 to 2.0oF. whieh will improve t.ho tnmp.:r!.lt.ure rnop,e and Ilturease the dissolved oxygp,n eontent. ~ourcc: Joseph Urhani. Fisheries !l\nln~ist.. 'l'imlocJ'fi"p' llel'l"m,,- t.iClnn. Tue:. , 11 -/30 - I I I I I I " I I I 'I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ... . o o - . ... -. . . . .~ . .... ...... .. ... . " ... "0 ... ... .0 ... .N" .0 . ... .. .. N .; . . . . . . "'0" _0'" NO. . .. _"'N N o N ~ .. - .. o o - ... o ~ .. . . . o o o .. .. ~ o o o - . ... . .. o N - '- o o - N' - ~ . o =.~ ... ... C 0 o ... .. " .;. . . . o o .. N o o N .,; . . . . . . o 0 o .. ~ .. .. .. ~ .. .; . . . o o o . - ... ,. .. .; ~ ... .. .; . ..'. II 0." .......... :.. 0, ., .. ~...' ........... I.. '"' ."'0 ...." ... ...." -.... . .. -: :: ... .. ...... 0 ....... .. . ... ... .. . . " . .. . - ...... .. .. . . .. I . . . . . .. . ... . .. .. ... - ... ... .. . .. . .. a .. .. . . ~ . :a ... . . . " ... ... . . . I I I I I I ... ..... .. ... .... . .. ' .... .' . .... .. ...... .. ~.-I. ... ..' . .. ... ... . . .. . ...... '0'" . ... ... . . .. . ... ... .." .- ... .. ... ~ . . .. o N ; '0 o ,.: o ... - - o ~ . ~ . . - .. o ... ... ..; ~ ~ .. .. N ... .. .; ,; .. ... .; o ': ... ... o ... .. .. <; . o o o .. - o ... .. .. o .. ~ o ~, - o .. o .; ." o - .. o -: o "! N N <; .. o .. " o ~ .,; ... .. .. 0' ..; ~ N . o o . ... o ~ ,.: o o .. o ... . N o .. N - o .. ,.: .. o .; .. ... ~ ..; o .. ~ ... .;, ',,; o 0 ';'.n .. ... ..0 CI..... .... ..0 lil'\ 0 N.N .." .... - - .... - . ... '0 .... ~ N .. o 0 -0 00'; .. .. ... .; .. ;:: .; .. .. .. o .. ~ o o 0 .. 0 -' - - - .. ,.: '" ... '" .. N ... o o o '" .. ... o .. ,.: o ": .. . . o .. '" ,.: - o N ... I, N .. N o .. '" ...' . ... ... o ,..; ... o ~ o - o .. ,;., o .. .; .. N ": N .. A . .. ... ... . ... . . . .. .. .. .. . .. ... ... N .. .. N - '" '" .. o " .:. ... o N ... ~ .. ... .. '" - .. N .. .. - .. .. .. ... .. .. o .. .. . o . o ": .. . . . . .. - N ~ '" - - .. <; , . '0 N ~ ~ o o .. o o '" ... o .; -'---'-. ... .. ~ o ~ .. o .; o .. - .; ... .. o .; o .. o .; o .. o .; ... '" .. .. o o ,.: ... - . ... -' ... ... ... o .. . ~ .. ~ ... oft o N .; - '-- o "! ... o '" . '" o ~' - .. 0'0 o 0 .,\ ..; 0.0 0 ~ '" ~ ... ..: ,: .. .. .. .. ,. .. o 0'0 .. .. - .. 0 .. ": 0'"" - '.. .. . .. o ": .. o '" ,.: ~ .. ,.: '" ~ ,.: o ~ .. o .. ,.: '... ": .. o 0 ... .. r.: .: o ~ .. o .. ,;. .. .. ,;. .. .. ,;. o .. .. o ... - - o .. .. .. o .. ,.: . .. ,. .. - o ": - - o 0 o .. N ,;. - .. .. ,;. .. ,. .. 0 ",..,. - .. .. 0 '" .. ~ ,;. . ...~ .. .. .. ... .. .. . o . .. ..\~ ,. ,. . .. ... ... - - . ... .. . - . . . . . . . . . a ....... . . . ... ~ ~ . . . ...... o ': .. o 0 ~ ... ,;. ~ .. o .. '" - - .. a, ... . . .. .. . ..: . .. .. .. . . 0 .. .. 0 I I II . . ... ~ . .. .. .. .. ~ .. .. ... . .. .. .. .. .. . . " .. .. .. -:. .; . . 0 .. .. 0 ~ ,. ~ .. - /3/- . . . . . . . . ... . :to , : Order: Ephemeropter3 Fumil y Genlls_ '- I I ,. ,I I I '. .1 J I I I I I 'I I I '. ,. I APPENDIX C Entomological RurvRY Heptageniidae Heptagenia Diatriblltion is general in smaller coastal ~treams. rlatten~d-well adapte~ for, swift wa~p.r hnhitat. rocky sItuations. however. prefer slow moving currents Siphlonurl<lae Eperorus Siphlonorus 'Baetidae BaeUs ~ ~ Small nymphs. living in OpCII wnte.rllut streams in ~lIrrent& rDnging:frnm'slo~ ~o v~ry swift., - .- . Order:- Td,choptera - " --- Ilydropsychidae Hydropsyche , Larv3e'very active. not spinning forms. spin a fixed abode fastened to supports in rivers. mure Clften in faster current~. GlossQscmatidae' ,G] ossosma , , ' ,Saddle'or t~rtle case makerr pfrytophagous~ _' ' Ordl'r-: Odonllta Argionidae. Calopteryx Large nymphs. Calopteryx averaging 3/4-1" in length. Argill averaging 1/2". Distrlbu~ion ill. general. however. large p~pulations of Argia' are found in slow~ moving' curren 1;8, and.,back,!,: ': wntllrs. _,,' ' ~rgia '. , " Sour(~c : Jeffrey ~ngaru. Aquatic Entomologist. Timberline ReclamatIons. Inc. 13 " . , -/32..- I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I .1 I I I ~ APPENDIX D ., _"', ,~~lst1n( Vegetation Along the Shores or North Creek (51 te or the proposed- Koll. Business Center) .. ' '-, .' 'Bothell,' Washington Alder , - Blackberri,es " .- .- ,-' , , ,Sa+ix 's#. :,: , '. '" M~adow/OrCha~d Grasses.' , . Cattails (growing 1n stream) -. ,.' :... ,-, Source: P.K. Rockwell, Earth E~terprlses. 14 - /;33- . .. '. ~ ,- .: -' ,.~~ References Cited 1 Bousser. M.F. ,and Cover on Management. Relationship Between Trout Populations a Small Stream. Journal or WildlifB- 18:229-239~ ' 2 Brooks. Charles E. The Trout and The Stream. City:' Doubleday and Company, Inc... 197,6. Garden 3 McIntyre. Richard A. Timberline Reclamations. unpublished research on Boulder River (1-15) Boulder, Montana. 1979-1981. 4' McIntyre, Richar9 A. Timberlfrie'Reclamations, In~., unpublislied research 0!1 Fish CreeJc: project, Gallatin,' Geteway, Montl!-na.19_78.;'198Q. , ,- Inc., proJ ect., 5 HcIntyroJ Richard A. ,Timberrine,Re~lnma~ioDs.IDc.. unpublished research on Golmeye~ -creek. project, Emio:runt.. Montana. 1979-1981. , . 6 McIntyre. Richard A. Timberline ReClamations, Inc., unpublished ?esearc& on Poindexter Slough project; Dillon, Montana. ~980~1981. 7" Vl-ncent'., Richard.' Fish~ries -Biologist-Montana Depart'ment af Fish. Wl.ldlire and Parks'. . Address. to National., ,Fisheries C~nve~ tion. Spoka,ne, Wa~~ington. . '1979.. 8 Vlturli. Marco. Owner, North Creek property. Personal Communication. 1981. ' '. . ' -/34 - 1<; I I I .- I I . - ,. .", ' , '" " I I I I I I '. I I I I I I I I 1 I I I- I 1- ,I I I I 1 I . ,.- '. l ... Additional References Foerster. R.E. The Sockeye Salmon. Fisheries. Research Board or Canada. Bullet,in 162. ,Ottawu.The,.Queenls-Printer... .. 1 g6a. Hynes. H.B. The Ecology or Running Water. University of Toronto Press. 1970~ Pacific Northwest River Basins Commission. Fish and Wildlife Coemittee. Anadromous Fish and Multipurpose Water Use: A Forum, Held, June 6. 1979. Spokane, "Washington. ,1979; ~ Paciric Northwest River Basln~ Commission, Fi~h and Wildlife Coemittee. Status or Columbia River~Salmonand ~teel- ' , ~ head Trout,. August ,1972. - , " . _ ,_ Schweibert. E~ne8t (Eaitor)'. ,Columbia' River Salm~n, 'ana-:Shel- - head: Pro-ceedings- of a S'ymposium- Held in~Vancouver, Wash- ington March 5-6. 1976. Special Fubl1cation No~ 10, American Fisheries Society: Washington D.C., 1977. , ' , " , " - - '-. : . , .:0- . _. " ... -..- ;. - 16 .' -/35- -/:3"- . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LIST OP REFERENCES i I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I . KOLL - BarnELL - I~OO~:;11UAL P..w.: SJPPLDlE.....i.-U. I:-OFOR.\l~TIO~ - XORrH CREEK LIsr OF REFERE;,CES ~1lnicipality of ~letropolitan Seattle (~1ETRO), 1975, 303(e) I~ater Quality ~lanagement Plan, Ced.n Green Basins ~1lnicipality of ~letropolitan Seattle, 197~, En\-ironrnental ~lanilge~nt for the ~letropolit~Ul Area, Part III - Appendix B, I\ater ~lity An3.1}'ses ~1lnicipality of ~letropolitan Seattle, 1980, Water Quality Index for King County StreaI:IS anJ Rivers ;'1lnicipality of :'letropolitan Seattle, I'ater Sampling Data for ~orth Creek, Years: 1974, 1979, 1980 State of Washington, 1975 liater CUality Assessment Report: Volume 1 State of I\"ashington, 1~75 ~part~ent of FiSher;es Catelog of Washington Streams and Saban Utilization, Volur.:e I.; Pu~et Scund State of liashington, ~?artlrent of Fisheries Letter and Data Dated ~lay ~, 1981 University of British Colu:::bia, Stre3ll1 Enhanc~ment GuiJe - "\\est Coast Style" - U.S.G.S_ Flow Data - Lake ~ashington Basin, 1962-1973 -/37- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I APPENDIX H WILDLIFE HABITAT ASSESSMENT (The following report was prepared at the request of the KOLL Company.) -139- I' I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ...... IC INTRODUCTION: .' -. .-. ,:.....- At the request of Horton Dennis and Associates, Inc.,. a reconnals. __ .... _. ~ ..~.: :-:'" _. .' pO ;._ _ . . _ . sance of the Koll Business Center. Bothell was made, with the objective of.makln!l.an .Inve~tory of the wildlife and wildlife habitat on the project site, and assessing the Impacts of the proposed development plan on the.wlldllfe,. :This report Is to augment the Information. on wHdlife cont~lned In the..D.raft Envlronmental.lmpac:t Statement prepared on the proposed development.. '., -. The reconnaissance and field Inventory was conducted by a team of biologists and ecologists, ~s follow~:, Dr~ Klause Richter, terrestlal ecologist: Dr. Stephen D. West, mammaloglst: Ms. Dorothy Milligan, ornithologist: and D~. Kenneth- J. Raedeke~wlldllfe blofogl~tand project leader;.. EXISTING CONDITIONS: Wildlife Habitat: As described in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DE IS) on the KoII Business Center - Bothel, the site was used for a"rlcultural '. - crop production until '974. Since then, the majority of the site has remained fallow, the natural vegetation developing, except around the farm bulllngs and the snail areas currently maintained as gardens. The entire 141 acres of the site, with the exception of the area around the buIldings, was formerly farmed, and all portIons were at one time or other -/4/- 2 plowed, and supported "truck farm" type crops for the Seattle metroplltian area. The last crops to be grown on the site were cash cereal crops such as. corn. The site Is. a very productive site as demonstrated by the rapid, \1 and truly phenomenal growth of cottonwoods to geights of to 30 plus feet with a dbh of eight Inches, In less then seven years. Native and exotic plants have rapIdly Invaded and colonized the sIte. The result is an extremely diverse habitat, composed of a mosaic of plant communities that have developed on the dlfferen~mlcro-sltes. The prIncipal plant - . . communities are grasslands, black-raspberry shrub thickets, buttercup meadows, sedge/rush meadows, willow thickets, and a young cottonwood forest. These communities range from wet site communities to more upland, dry site communitIes. A map of the vegetation communities of the site was presented In FIgure 5, page 26 of the DEIS. However, the map is very general, and the. legends on the figure do not agree with the text (page 25). The legend to FIgure 5 states that In Vegetation type 3 "Willows and cattails pre- dominate," while the text states that "a few cattails" are present. In actuality there are no cattails In vegetation unit 3. Cattails are extremely limited on the site, and are found only along the margins of several of the small drainage ditches. These are on the NW side, along Interstate 405: on the east side along 120th. Avenue 1I0rth East; and a small patch about 30 by 5 feet approximately 500 feet southeast of the southern- most expanse of vegetalon type 3 In Figure 5, -/4'Z- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I, I I I I I I I I I I I 3 The site is well drained by a serIes of ditches and North Creek. The ditches and-creek margins have not developed much riparian habitat due to the prior farming practices: In most cases, except where noted above, the rank grasses of the site form th~ bank side vegetation. The . straight, uniform channel of North Creek has not allowed the development of typIcal riparian habitat. Extensive areas of permanent wetland~ or swam~ are not present anywhere on the site. Parts of the site are seasonally flooded, but they d;y out in the summer. This ~et-dry cycle has allowed the development of only an ephemeral wetland community of buttercups/rushes. In the summer even these areas are dry enough that they can be plowed and worked with . heavy farm equIpment. The dramatic and highly visible change In the vegetation of the site over the past seven years from plowed agricultural fields to shrub thickets and cottonwood forests clearly shows the dynamic nature of the plant communities of the site. There are two distinct, but interrelated successional trends ongoIng on the site: both forms of s~ccesslon will re- sult in dramatic changes In the composItion of the habitat. These trends are a change from wet to dry type plant communities, and a trend from early successIonal to late successional plant communities. -143- 4 The successional trend from wet to dry communities Is caused by the natural process of land formation, starting with the formation of peat bogs, and ending with upland communities. The process has been, accelerated on the site by Improved drainage, channelization of the North Creek, and increased runoff due to soil compaction and modification by farming. Already, plant species adapted to more mesic conditions are InvadIng and becoming established. Such plants are dogwoo~, birch and cherry tre~s, Scott's.broom and elderberry shrubs, flreweed, ~lover, bounc lng-bett, pi antane, and other g'rasses and forbs. ~ The other successional trend, toward older successional stages, Is also evident on the site as alders and other mid-successional stage plants Invade the earlier successlon~l grass-forb-shrub stage. If the site is left fall~w, It would develop Into an alder/maple/Douglas-flr forest, with a grass/forb understory in less than 100 years, and maybe as soon as 50 years. Some patches of wetland shrubs might pers.lst on the wetter sites, However, these too would be lost In time as the site continues to dry out. A partial lIst of the plants of the sIte, with designations as to their site characteristics, Is given In Table I. Wi Idllfe: The site supports a great dIversity of wildlife species that use the drainage ditches, grassla~ds, shrub thickets, young forests, barns, etc. -;44- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 'I , I I I 5 Four field trips were made to the site to Inventory the birds, mammals, amphibians, and other wildlife of the site. Thirty species of birds were observed or reported for th~ sIte. These are listed In Table 2. The bird c~mmunlty contains mainly species that utilize the grasslands and shrub thickets. Several species of predatory birds that prey on the abundant mice and vole! of the site were .also observed. The majority of the species observed probably also u!e . . the s.lte. for nesting. Since all observations of birds were confined to the late spring, most migratory bIrds that use the site either during. migration or In wInter were not observed. It Is reported that migratory ducks use the area in winter. Table 2 Is undoubtedly Incomplete at this time. The species of mammals that occupy.the area. were enumerated through direct observations, observation of sign (scat, tracts, etc.), and trapping data from an adjacent field. On October 4, 5, and 6, 1980, we trapped a comparable fallow field approximately 0.5 miles southe!t of the KoII SIte. Forty baIted snap traps were set on three successive nights. The following species were captured: 4 house mice (Mus musculus); 20 deer mice (Peromuscus maniculatus.): 2 Townsend's voles (Microtus townsend! i); and 1 Towbrldge's shrew (Sorex trowbrldqel). On the site, long-tailed weasels, house mice, Mictorus spp., shrews, and coyotes were observed, in addition to sign of moles, pocket gophers, muskrats, and red fox. Racoons and skunks have also been reported for the site, -/45'- 6 Only one amphibian was observed, the red-legged fr~g. However, we expect that the Pacific-tree frog, toads, newts, and garder sr.akes are also present. All the species of wildlife observed on the site or reported" for the area are common specIes In the Puget Sound area. .No threatened or endangered species are bel ieved to be present. on or near the site. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS: 7 There are apparently three possible alternative types of land-use patterns for this site: A} allow the site to remain fallow, B} return the site to agricultural uses, or C} commercial development. Each of these land-'lse patterns would result In varying iinpacts on the wildlife,. wh-ich will be described below. AI. Remain fallow Due to the dynamic nature of the plant community of the site, the present status of the site Is transitory, and will not persist if the site Is simply allowed to remain fallow. With no further management, the trees will continue to Invade, and the site will continue to gradually dry out. The result will be a mixed deciduous/conifer forest, with a reduced diversity of wildlife species, a~d a distinctly different wildlife co~~unity. We would expect a 50 percent reduction in the number of bird species present, and a similar reduction in other wildlife species, such a mammals. The - /4(" - . I I I I I .. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 7. B). Return to agricultural uses ~hlle agricultural lands provide some good. wildlife habitat, the . habitat dlverlsty on such land.u~e'patterns would be loWer th~n supported- ~ currently on the site. The.reductlo~' In habitat diversity would resclt In - .a, reduction In the. number of species- that are found on the site.. Wlldl ife species that use the trees, shrub thIckets, and grasslands for breeding or feeding would ~e elIminated. The specle~ composition of the wildlife community would shift to the commo~, and often pest species that occupy agl'icul tUl'31 fields. ..-These would, also be spe.cles that are habituated to . hUIllc;n presence, and are. common throughollt the urban i zed reg ions of Puget Sound lowlands. The change In land-use patterns to cattle grazing would have an even greater negative effect on wildlife. Cattle grazing on the lands to the north and south of. the site has v.'rtually eliminated all wildlife use of the area, except as a feeding area for Canada geese, migratory ducks, and a few other birds, The cattle have eliminated nearly all vegetation along the stream banks, and removed all possIble nesting and hiding cover for wIldlIfe, The pastures to the south do not support any significant mammal -/47- 8 populations. In both circumstances, grazing has reduced the habitats to nearly a sfngle habitat type. ,- c). Commercial development Commercial development of the site has the potential to virtually eliminate all wildlife and wIldlife habitat, or to cause only moderate reductions In wlldl,lfe populations, while maintaining species diversity, . The degree of the Impact will depend: entirely on the site plan, and Its Implementation. .- -:. ,/ ~- The proposed development plan will undoubtedly result In the loss of wildlife habitat, since approximately 40 percent of the site will be covered with parking I~and buildIngs. Such habitat loss is permanent and .unavoldable with deve:opment. Further, since most commercial .establlshments would consider natural vegetation, I,e., shrub thickets, tall grass, etc., to be unsightly, all of the area except the greenbelt and creek corridor would most likely be planted Into grasses and regularly mowed. Thus these areas will be substantially reduced In value to wildlIfe, e~cept for those species which feed In such areas, and can habituate to humans. These Include Canada geese, mallard ducks, starlings, robins, house sparrows, etc. The unique, non-urban wildli.fe currently on the site will be elimInated from these areas. The species that depend on the tall grasses, shrubs, and trees will be restricted to the greenbelt. Some species may - /48- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ~ I I I I I I I I I I I io /' be eliminated entirely. The greenbelt and creek corridor will comprise 27.5 acres, or 19 percent of the total site. While much of the site will be degraded as wildlife habitat, there Is a possibility of enhanc:ing some aspects of the habitat, particularly the wetlands. As stated earlier, there are currently no permanent wetlands onthe site, with the exception of the drainage ditches and creek. If the proposed site ~lan Is Implemented, It Is possible that limited ~wamps and riparian habitat could be created. The. rechannellzatlon of the.North CreeK would nearly double the potential riparian habitat, However, the - succe~s of the plan depends on the establishment of appropriate native vegetation along the stream in quantities sufficient to meet the habitat requirements of the target species. The establishment of~ny quality wetland and riparian habitats on the site will depend on the preservat Ion of qua 11 ty sell s. I f the dredse spoils from the channelIzation process are dumped on the new stream bank, it will be nearly impossible to establish any riparian plant community that does not consist of only noxious exotic species. Native riparian plant communities are adapted to, and dependent on the current scll conditions on the site. The dredge material should be used for fill for parking lots or building sites. -/49- 11 Surcharging of the building sites and parking lots can have serious consequences for wildlife If the material used Is not free of harmful pollutants. which might leach Into the wetlands and creek. HITIGATINGMEASURES: In addition to the mitigating measures enumerated In the DEIS, other measure.s could be.'taken to reduce the impact on wi ldllfe. .- 1. Direct human use away from the greenbelt, by keepIng the trail system and activity areas away from the greenbelt. 2. Encourage the plantIng of natural vegetation adJacent to the greenbelt and.creek corridor whenever possible, thus Increasing the functional width of the greenbelt and creek corridor. 3. Plant large shrubs and trees'along th~ outslae ~f the creek corridor and greenbelt to reduce disturbance to Inner areas. 4. Encourage the planting of shrubs and trees on the commercial plots that produce berries, fruits, seeds and other wildlife forage. 5. Discourage manicured, and Intricately landscaped grounds surround- ing developments. 6. Extreme care must be taken to pre~~nt the pollution of the riparian and wetland communities that are created on the site after development. Run-off, with oil, grease, chemicals, and litter will greatly degrade these greenbelt areas. - i50 - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 012 7. The greenbelt, creek corridor, and storm retention area must not be scraped or filled, as this would eliminate the extremely rich solid that are now on these sites. If they are graded and filled, It will be Impossible to establish any quality riparian and desirable plant community. -/5/- x >t I I I I I I I I " I I .. I I . I I I I I Table 1. A list of the plant species observed on the Koll Business Center - Bothel, with information on their sIte characteristics. Site Characteristics Species Common Name WET INTERMEDIATE DRY TREES Cottonwood Grey birch . Sweet cherry Dogwood European ash Willow spp, Alder x x x x x x x SHRUBS Evergreen blackberry Himalylan blackbe~ry S., I rea . x x x Red elderberry Scott's broom Deadly night shade Salal x x x x GRASSES, GRASSLIKES, FORBS, ETC. Rushes Canary grass Canadian thistle Thistle spp. Sedges (3 spp.) Flreweed Nettle Catta i Is Feather moss x x x x x x x x x x x -/:52. - I I Table 1. Continued. I Common Name WET INTERMEDIATE DRY I Chickweed . . Morning glory x MInt x I Minors lettus x Burr docks x I Mustard x x Equ i s itum x I Orchard grass x - . Bouncing-bett x I Dand i 1100 X. Buttercup.s x . '. I I I I I I I I I I I - /:5 :3 - American goldfinch Rufous-sided towhee Sparrow spp7 Song sparrow Savannah sparrow Fox sparrow x I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Table 2. Bird species observed, or recorded on the site. Common name Rare Common Canada goose. Mallards Red-tailed hawk Kestre 1 Cal Ifornia quail Ringed-neck pheasant Great blue heron Killdeer Rock doves Great-horned owl Short-eared 0..1 Ollv-sided flycatcher Barn ,swallow Violet-green swallow Common crow long~billed marsh wren RobIn Hermit thrush Swainsons thrush Starl ing Vireo spp. Yellow throat House sparrow Brown-headed cowbird x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x .x x x x x x x x x x x x x -:-/54 - 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I NOTE: Dr. Raedeke's report does not deal with all the mitigating measures to be used by the Koll Company in developing the site. A memorandum of clarification will be submitted In a subsequent mailing to recipients of the Final .EIS. -6S-